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ch 18 head and neck

Name four main bones of the body. Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital
The brain is divided into two whats. Hemisphere's
Name the four area's of the Brain. Cerebrum, Cerebellum, Diencephalon, Brain Stem
What are the five functions of the Cerebrum. Motor, sensory info, special senses, cognition, memory
What are the three functions of the Cerebellum. Balance, coordination, smooth muscle control
What are the four functions of the diencephalon. afferent routing, temp, water balance, emotions
What are the 3 functions of the brain stem. HR, Resp R., peripheral blood flow
How many meninges are there. three
What are the three meninges called. Dura matter, arachnoid mater, pia matter
What is the sympathetic nervous system. part of the cns that supplies the involuntary muscles.
what is the parasympathetic nervous system. the system that controls smooth muscle contraction, slowing of the heart rate, and constriction of the pupil
How many vessels supply blood to the brain. four
what vessels supply blood to the brain. 2 common carotid arteries and 2 vertebral arteries.
What takes precedence over poss. of spinal fracture. vital signs
What is retrograde amnesia. when the athlete can not remember anything before the point of concussion (last week)
what is anteriograde amnesia. when athlete cant remember stuff that happened after concussion. (3 words)
what is tinnitus. ringing of the ears.
what is nystagmus. involuntary eyeball side to side movement.
what is photophobia. painful reaction to light.
what is a common complaint after brain trauma. diffuse headaches
localized pain indicants what three things. contusion, skull fracture, intracranial hemorrhage
what is a coup injury. head injury when the stationary skull is hit by a moving object. pain on side of impact.
what is a contra coup injury. head injury when the skull is moving at a high velocity and is suddenly stopped. Brain is traumatized on opposite side of primary trauma.
what is repeated sub concussive forces. repeated non traumatic blows to the head
what are Rotational or shear forces. sudden twisting forces or acceleration and deceleration that result in concussive symptoms.
what moi will usually cause the most catastrophic cervical spine injury. flexion
Reports of muscular weakness in one or more extremities tells you what. May indicate trauma to the brain, spinal cord, or one or more spinal nerve roots.
A Laterally flexed and rotated skull that is accompanied by muscle spasm on the side opposite that of the tilt may indicate what. a dislocation of the cervical vertebra
what is ecchymosis behind the mastoid process. Battle’s sign
Battle’s sign is indicative of what. basilar skull fracture
Unilaterally dilated pupil may indicate what. intracranial hemorrhage’s placing pressure cranial nerve III
Bleeding from the nose could represent what. nasal fracture or a skull fracture
what is raccoon eyes. Ecchymosis under the eyes that may indicate a skull or nasal fracture
what is the halo test testing for. csf leakage coming out of the ears in the presence of skull fracture or trauma.
what is Decerebrate posture. Extension of the extremities and retraction of the head.
what is Decorticate posture. Flexion of the elbows and wrists, clenched fists, and extension of the lower extremity.
what is flexion contraction. Arms flexed across the chest
What are three balance and coordination tests you should do. Romberg Test, Tandem Walking, Balance Error Scoring System
If blood pressure doesn't decrease over time or increases over time what should be expected. severe intracranial hemorrhage
a severe sign of consciousness would be what. loss of consciousness longer than 10 sec or altered consciousness for less than two min.
what is anisocoria. unequal pupil size.
Nystagmus can indicates what. Indicates increased intracranial pressure or inner ear dysfunction.
What is post concussion syndrome. Cognitive impairment following a cerebral concussion.
what is a Epidural Hematoma Arterial bleeding between the dura mater and the skull.
what is a Subdural Hematoma. Hematoma formation between the brain and dura mater.
what are the two types of subdural hematoma. simple and complex.
what are the three types of skull fractures. Linear, Comminuted, Depressed
what is a Jefferson's fracture. fracture of a circular bone in two places.
Trauma to spinal cord above c4 has a high probability of what? death
MOI of most cervical fractures or dislocations. When the neck is forced into flexion and rotation (C4 to C6)
what is Transient Quadriplegia. Body-wide state of decreased or absent sensory or and motor function.
MOI of Transient Quadriplegia. cervical spine hyperextension, hyperflexion or a blow that produces an axial load.
Created by: shsuman152
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