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Ch. 5 Test

T/F: What sets chronic offenders apart from the "average" criminal is an abnormal biochemical makeup, brain structure, genetic constitution, or some other personal trait. T
Some criminologists believe that the root cause of crime may be linked to what? Mental or physical abnormality
The earliest "scientific" studies applying the positivist model to criminology were conducted by whom? They studied the facial features of criminals to determine whether the shape of ears, nose, and eyes and the distance between them were associated with Physiognomists
5 elements of the scientific method Observation, hypothesis, test hypothesis, interpretation, conclusion
Who studied the shape of the skull and bumps on the head to determine whether these physical attributes were linked to criminal behavior Phrenologists
By the early 19th century, abnormality in the human mind was being linked to what? Criminal behavior patterns
T\F: These early research efforts shifted attention to brain functioning and personality as the keys to criminal behavior. T
A physician who was studying the cadavers of executed criminals in an effort to scientifically determine whether law violators were physically different from people of conventional values and behavior. He believed that serious offenders were "born crimina Cesare Lombroso
The work of Lombroso and his contemporaries is regarded today as a _______ , NOT a scientific fact. Historical curiosity
T\F: Strict biological determination is NO LONGER taken seriously. T
Most studies did or did not use control groups? Did not
What has been coined to reflect the assumed link between physical and mental traits, the social environment, and behavior? Biosocial theory
What stresses that biological and genetic conditions affect how social behaviors are learned and perceived? Sociobiology
Sociobiologists view what as the ultimate unit of life that controls all human destiny? Gene
Sociobiologists' main premise is that most actions are controlled by a person's what? They believe that people are controlled by the innate need to have their genetic material survive and dominate others/ "Biological machine"
For many years, criminologists maintained that what, such as poverty and racism, were responsible for antisocial behavior? social factors
T/F: Each offender is considered physically and mentally unique. T
Substances such as caffeine, food dyes, and artificial flavors seem to ______ hostile, impulsive, and otherwise antisocial behavior. provoke
Research shows that persistent abnormality in the way the brain metabolizes _____ can be linked to antisocial behaviors such as substance abuse. sugar
Neurological impairments to the prefrontal cortex reduces levels of what? self-control
Approximately what percent of all youths have some form of learning disorders? 10%
About what percent of U.S. children are believed to suffer from ADHD? 3%
chemical compounds which influence or activate brain functions neurotransmitters
Research efforts have linked low levels of what to high levels of violence and property crime, as well as defiance of punishment? MAO
According to what theory a variety of genetic and environmental reasons, some people's brains function differently in response to environmental stimuli? arousal theory
Low or high heartbeat rates are more likely to commit crime because they seek stimulation to increase their feelings of arousal to normal levels? Low
T/F: Children of criminal parents should be more likely to become law violators than the offspring of conventional parents. T
T/F: Research DOES show that if one sibling engages in antisocial behavior, so do their brothers and sisters. T
Some criminologists believe the human traits that produce violence and aggression are produced through the long process of what? Human evolution
What type of offenses are often driven by evolutionary and reproductive factors? Violent offenses
the primitive part of an individual's mental makeup present at birth ID
the principle that requires instant gratification without concern for the rights of others; the ID follows this principle pleasure principle
the principle that helps the personality refine the demands of the ID, helps person adapt to conventions; Ego follows this principle reality principle
the principle that contains the moral aspect of the personality; the superego follows this principle the conscience
the branch of behavior theory most relevant to criminology social learning
branch concerned with the way people morally represent and reason about the world moral development
branch that focuses on the way people process, store, encode, retrieve, and manipulate info to make decisions and solve problems information processing
T/F: The moral and intellectual development branch of cognitive psychology is perhaps the most important for criminological theory. T
two of the most critical traits personality and intelligence
Is there a connection between personality traits of repeat and chronic offenders? Yes
the key to understanding antisocial behavior personality
Created by: 449569235237736



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