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vocab

TermDefinition
Central Processing Unit (CPU) The brain of the computer and expensive by computer hardware
HARDWARE Central Processing Unit CPU which is the main memory and ram which is the random access memory & secondary storage.
Main Memory Connected directly to CPU. The programs must be loaded into main memory before they can be executed.
Memory Cells Main memory is ordered in a sequence of these cells.
SOFTWARE Software is a collective term for programs; the instructions computers perform to implement applications.
Address Each cell has a unique location in main memory which is called the address of the cell.
Secondary Stage The device that stores information permanently.
Input Devices The device that feeds data and programs into computers.
Output Devices The devices that the computer uses to display results.
System Programs Control the computer. It loads first when when your on your pc is call the operating system
Operating System Monitors the overall activity of the computer and initializes services. Services like Memory Managementm, input/output activities and storage management.
Application Programs Perform a specific task , like word processors , spreadsheets, and games are examples of an application program.
Analog Signal Are continuous wave forms used to represent such things as sound. I.E. Audio tapes
Digital Signals Represent information with a sequence of 0’s and 1’s. As 0 reps a low voltage and 1 reps a high voltage.
Machine Language Digital signals are processed inside a computer, The language of the computer that is processed in 0’s and 1’s.
Binary digit or bit Digit with 0 or 1 which is a binary code/number.
Byte Sequence of eight bits, 2^10 bytes = 1024 bytes which is kilobyte(KB).
American standard code for information interchange(ASCII) The most commonly used encoding scheme on personal computers Is the seven bit. It sets of 128 characters from 0 to 127.
Assembler A program that translates the assembly language instructions into machine language.
High Level Languages That were closer to natural languages, such as English , French, german and Spanish.
Source code / program Must be saved in a text file saved as .cpp. A source program is written in a high level language.
Preprocessor As an example, #include as statements that begin with #. These programs are processed in the program called preprocessor.
Object Program The compiler checks the program for errors the equivalent machine language is an object program.
Library Prewritten code resides in.
Linker Combines the object program with the programs from libraries.
Loader A program that loads an executable program into main memory.
Build or rebuild The command the combines visual c++ 2008 express , visual c++ 2-1- express and visual studio 2010.
Algorithm A step by step problem solving process in which a solution is arrived at in afinite amount of time.
Structured design Dividing a program into smaller sub problems.
Structured programming The process of implementing a structured design
Top down design, bottom up design, stepwise refinement and modular programming The structured design approach could be used in these techniques.
Object oriented design (OOD) Widely used programming methodology.
Object oriented programming(OOP) A programming language that implements OOD.
Computer program Sequence of statements whose objective is to accomplish a task
Programming Is a process of planning or creating a program
Subprogram/function collection of statements and when activated or executed it accomplishes something.
Keywords Reserved words are also called keywords. The letters that make up a reserved word are always lowercase. Like the special symbols, each is considered to be a single symbol.
Identifier Identifiers are names of things that appear in programs, such as variables, constants, and functions. All identifiers must obey C++’s rules for identifiers.
Simple Data Types 1. Integral, which is a data type that deals with integers, or numbers without a decimal part 2. Floating-point, which is a data type that deals with decimal numbers 3. Enumeration, which is a user-defined data type
Int Type Integers in C++, as in mathematics, are numbers such as the following: -988, -93, 0, 68, 364932, +7643
Bool Type The data type bool has only two values: true and false. Also, true and false are called the logical (Boolean) values. The central purpose of this data type is to manipulate logical
Char DATA TYPE The data type char is the smallest integral data type. It is mainly used to represent characters—that is, letters, digits, and special symbols. 1 byte
float The data type float is used in C++ to represent any real number between -3.4E+38 and 3.4E+38. The memory allocated for a value of the float data type is four bytes.
double The data type double is used in C++ to represent any real number between -1.7E+308 and 1.7E+308. The memory allocated for a value of the double data type is eight bytes.
string Type A string is a sequence of zero or more characters. Strings in C++ are enclosed in double quotation marks. A string containing no characters is called a null or empty string. 0 to 1 and so on.
Named constant A memory location whose content is not allowed to change during program execution.
Preprocessor Directives Only a small number of operations, such as arithmetic and assignment operations, are explicitly defined in C++ C++ program are provided as a collection of libraries. with header.
Documentation The programs that should be clear not only to you, but also to anyone else. Therefore, you must properly document your programs.
Semantics The set of rules that gives meaning to a language is called semantics. For example, the order-of-precedence rules for arithmetic operators are semantic rules. If a program contains syntax errors.
Statement terminator All C++ statements must end with a semicolon. The semicolon is also called a statement terminator.