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Criminology

Ch. 5 Terms

TermDefinition
Positivism the branch of social science that uses the scientific method of the natural sciences and suggests that human behavior is a product of social, biological, psychological, or economic forces
Inheritance school advocates of this view trace the activities of several generations of families believed to have an especially large number of criminal members
Somatotype a system developed for categorizing people on the basis of their body build
Biosocial theory an approach to criminology that focuses on the interaction between biological and social factors as they relate to crime
Biophobia a view held by sociologists that no serious consideration should be given to biological factors when attempting to understand human nature
Sociobiology the scientific study of the determinants of social behavior, based on the view that such behavior is influenced both by the individual's genetic makeup and interactions with the environment
Trait theory the view that criminality is a product of abnormal biological and/or psychological traits
Hypoglycemia a condition that occurs when glucose levels in the blood fall below the necessary level for normal and efficient brain functioning
Androgens male sex hormones
Cerebral allergies a physical condition that causes brain malfunction due to exposure to some environmental or biochemical irritant
Neuroallergies allergies that affect the nervous system and cause the allergic person to produce enzymes that attack wholesome foods as if they were dangerous to the body
Electroencephalograph (EEG) a device that can record the electronic impulses given off by the brain, commonly called brain waves
Minimal brain dysfunction an abruptly appearing, maladaptive behavior that interrupts an individual's lifestyle and life flow
Learning disability (LD) a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using spoken or written languages
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) a psychological disorder in which a child shows developmentally inappropriate impulsivity, hyperactivity, and lack of attention
Contagion effect genetic predispositions and early experiences make some people, including twins, susceptible to deviant behavior, which is transmitted by the presence of antisocial siblings in the household
Behaviorism the branch of psychology concerned with the study of observable behavior rather than unconscious motives
Cognitive theory the study of the perception of reality and the mental processes required to understand the world in which we live
Id the primitive part of people's makeup, present at birth, that represents unconscious biological drives for food, sex, and other life-sustaining necessities
Ego the part of the personality, developed in early childhood, that helps control the id and keep people's actions within the boundaries of social convention
Superego incorporation within the personality of the moral standards and values of parents, community, and significant others
Conscience one of two parts of the superego; it distinguishes between what is right and what is wrong
Conduct disorders a pattern of repetitive behavior in which the rights of others or social norms are violated
Attachment theory the belief that the ability to form attachments-that is, emotionally bond to another person- has important lasting psychological implications that follow people across the life span
Disorders any type of psychological problems such as anxiety disorders, mood disorders, and conduct disorders
Social learning theory the view that human behavior is modeled through observation of human social interactions, either directly from observing those who are close and from intimate contact or indirectly through the media
Humanistic psychology a branch of psychology that stresses self-awareness and "getting in touch with feelings"
Personality the reasonably stable patterns of behavior, including thoughts and emotions, that distinguish one person from another
Psychopath people who have an antisocial personality that is a product of a defect or aberration within themselves
Sociopath personality disorder characterized by superficial charm and glibness, a lack of empathy for others, amoral conduct, a lack of shame, guilt, or remorse for antisocial behavior
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory a widely used psychological test that has subscales designed to measure many different personality traits
California Personality Inventory (CPI) a frequently administered personality test used to distinguish deviant groups from nondeviant groups
Intelligence a person's ability to reason, think abstractly, understand complex ideas, learn from experience, and discover solutions to complex problems
Nature theory the view that intelligence is largely determined genetically and that low intelligence is linked to criminal behavior
Nurture theory the view that intelligence is not inherited but is largely a product of environment
Neurophysiology the study of brain activity
Created by: 449569235237736
 

 



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