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Phys Test 1

Ch 1, 2, 3, 24, 25

Define Chemical Elements: the building blocks to all forms of matter
Name the main chemical elements in the body O, C, H, N (make up 96% of body weight)
Atomic Mass is calculated by: sum of the masses of it's protons, neutrons and electrons
Isotopes are different atoms of an element that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons
Some isotopes are called Radioisotopes, they are unstable and may emit radiation that can be monitored with radiation detectors.
What is the outermost shell of an electron? Valence Shell
For an atom to achieve stability... an atom will tend to either empty their valence shell or fill it to the max extent (8) which is achieved by giving up or sharing with other atoms
Inert elements are: elements that have a full valence shell
An ionic bond is when outer energy level electrons are transferred from one atom to another
An ion is an atom that has a positive or negative charge because it has unequal numbers of protons and electrons
A cation is a positively charged ion (when the protons exceed the number of electrons)
An anion is a negatively charged ion (when the electrons exceed the protons)
Covalent bonds are when there is sharing of pairs of outer-energy-level electrons
Hydrogen bonds are when two other atoms (usually O or N) associate with a hydrogen atom
What factors determine if a chemical (metabolic) reaction will occur 1. The concentration of particles 2. The speed at which particles are traveling (influenced by temperature and size) 3. Activation energy 4. Proper orientation of the colliding partivles.
Synthesis reactions are When two or more atoms, ions or molecules combine to form new and larger molecules. ex: N2 + 3H2 --> 2NH3
Anabolism is all the synthesis reactions that occur in your body collectively
Catabolic Reactions are when chemical bonds are broken. AB --> A + B
Exchange Reactions involve the replacement of one atom or atoms by another atom or atoms ex: HCl + NaHCO3 --> H2CO3 + NaH ex: Glucose 1p --> Glucose 6p <--
Oxidation - Reduction reactions electrons are taken from the atom being oxidized by the atom being reduced.
Exergonic reaction Energy in
Endergenic reaction Energy out
Which of the following lists contain elements that have ionic forms critical to muscle contraction and action potential generation?(a) C, H, O, N (b) Ca, P, Sc) Cl, Mg, S (d) Ca, Na, K (e) Fe, Mg, P d) Ca, Na, K
Isotopes are:(a) charged atoms that gained or lost electrons (b) atoms of different elements that have the same atomic mass (c) able to release radiation if their nuclei are unstable (d) atoms with unpaired electrons in their outermost shells. c) able to release radiation if their nuclei are unstable.
A physician suspects a patient may hav a thyroid tumor. Which of the following radioisotopes will help the physician confirm the initial diagnosis? (a) iodine-131 (b) thallium-201 (c) radium-26(d) cobalt-60 (e) radon-222 a) iodine-131
Which of the following is an ion and why? (a) O2-because it contains an unpaired electron in its outer shell. (b) Na+ because it has lost an electron (c) Co-60 beause it is radioactive (d) H2 because it is sharing electrons b) Na+ because it has lost an electron
Which of the following compounds is a polar covalent? (a) O2 (b) H20 (c) NaCl (d) CH4 (e) Kl b) H2O
Hydrogen bonds:(a) are stronger than either covalent or ionic bonds (b) tend to destabilize large molecules such as proteins (c) are relatively uncommon between molecules in the body (d) form between H and N or O atoms (e) enhance gas exchange in the lun d) form between H and N or O atoms
In a chemical reation, (a) the starting materials are called products (b) the ending substances are called reactants (c) electrons are exchanged or shared to make atos more stable. (d) matter is created or destroyed c) electrons are exchanged or shared to make atoms more stable.
The sum of all the chmeical reactions that occur in the body is called (a) metabolism (b) anabolism (c) synthesis(d) catabolism (e) exchange a) metabolism
The kinetic energy needed to break the chemical bonds in reactant molecules is called (a) chemical energy (b) positional energy (c) activation energy (d) conservation energy (e) potential energy c) activation energy
Which one of the following influence the rate of a chemial reaction? (a) the concentraion of the reactants (b) the temperature (c) the presence of catalysts of enzymes (d) both A and B are correct (e) A, B, and C are correct e) A, B, and C are correct
Which of the following never has an alkaline pH in a healthy person? (a) gastric juice (b) urine (c) semen (d) blood (e) pancreatic juice a) gastric juice
Buffers: (a) convert weak acids or bases into strong ones (b) help destabilize pH (c) can absorb OH+ if the pH is too low (d) can release H+ if the pH is too high. (e) include the HCL - KOH system d) can release H+ if the pH is too high
A common buffer found in extracellular fluid is (a) glucose (b) bicarbonate ion (c) sodium ion (d) a triglyceride (e) ATP b) bicarbonate ion
Hydrolysis of large biological molecules into smaller ones that can be absorbed by cells is (a) indigestion (b) mechanical digestion (c) chemical digestion (d) secretion (e) propulsion c) chemical digestion
Which of the following types of medications would be most effective at immobilizing the intestines? (a) cholinergic medication (b) anticholinergic medication (c) antiadrenic medication (d) A & C (e) B & C b) an anticholinergic medication
Saliva (a) is largely secreted by the parotid, sublingual and submandibular glands (b) rich in amylase comes primarily from the parotid and submandibular glands (c) helps moisten food so that it can be swallowed (d) contains primarily water (e) ABCD e) A, B, C and D are correct
Deglutition (a) involves the mouth, pharynx and esophageal stages (b) occurs in voluntary, pharyngeal and esophageal stages (c) is controlled directly by the medulla oblongata and the hypothalamus (d) A & B (e) A, B & C a) involves the mouth, pharynx and esophagus
Created by: steph12785



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