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MEDT 401 Module 8

Chapter 8 & 11 Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Laboratory Science

Area under the curve (AUC) Ratio of the FP rate to the TP rate produces a proportion AKA "under the curve". AUC of 0.50 (50%) means diagnostic test is no better than chance. AUC of 1.0 (100%) means diagnostic test is perfectly accurate.
Assessment Collecting data upon which a diagnosis can be tested. Process: ID signs & symptoms of disease & recording associated data for informing a diagnosis. A process of data collection and the collected data itself.
Audit trail Record of decisions made through a naturalistic (qualitative study that can be referenced by a peer reviewer or an external auditor in assessing the trustworthiness of the study.
Blind Procedure through which individuals (subjects, clinicians, and/or data analysts) are kept uninformed of the designation of subjects to study groups.
Cohen’s d A statistic that shows effect size. A d score of 0.80 is considered a large effect. 0.20 is a small effect, 0.50 is a medium effect, I.I0 is a very large effect, and 1 .40 or higher is an extremely large effect.
Cohen’s kappa A statistic that shows inter-rater reliability for categorical data. A score of 0.80 or higher is generally considered an indication of a high level of consistency, meaning the data are reliable.
Complete history Process for collecting information about a patient designed to elucidate a patient's entire health status. A complete history covers all body systems.
Computed tomography (CT) A type of imaging procedure.
Constant comparative method Interview data are analyzed after each participant's interview and the data from one interview are compared to the data from the other interviews; therefore. data collection and analysis occur simultaneously.
Correlation studies A study that identifies statistically significant relationships between variables.
Credibility The degree to which data collection and interpretation are plausible. This concept is generally applied to naturalistic (qualitative) research.
Defensive medical practice Excessive use of diagnostic procedures to avoid lawsuits by showing that every available measure was employed.
Dependability The degree to which the interpretations in a naturalistic (qualitative) study are consistent with the data collected.
Differential diagnosis Systematically comparing and contrasting results of diagnostic measures in order to determine which one of two or more diseases or conditions a patient is suffering from.
Dx A clinical abbreviation that stands for diagnosis.
Exclusion criteria Characteristics (such as age, diagnosis. comorbidities, gender, etc.) that result in an individual being excluded from participating in a study. In many cases, exclusion criteria relate to risks of harm from the study intervention.
External validity The degree to which the findings of the study are generalizable to the population and to a similar healthcare context.
Extraneous variables Undesirable variables that interfere with the intended purpose of the investigation by introducing error to the study and affecting the dependent variable or outcome. AKA intervening variables.
Focused history A process for collecting information about a patient designed to elucidate a specific problem and differentiate between critical and noncritical causes. A focused history covers only the relevant body systems.
Gold standard The test that is known to be the most accurate, regardless of cost, invasiveness or other considerations.
Inclusion criteria Characteristics (such as age, diagnosis, comorbidities, gender, etc.) that must be satisfied in order for an individual to be included in a study.
Institutional Review Board (IRB Organization that reviews research proposals & regulates research activities. Can be internal or external. Must be approved by Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP).
Intention-to-treat analysis A procedure in which the data analyzed from a study include participants who completed at least one follow-up.
Internal validity A characteristic of research design that relates to the degree to which the outcomes of the study can be attributed to the interventions.
Inter-rater reliability The degree to which the data collected are consistent between different researchers. Inter-rater reliability is often measured through a Cohen's Kappa test.
Intervening AKA extraneous variables.
Intra-rater reliability The degree to which the data collected on one participant are consistent with the data collected on the other participants.
Likelihood ratio (LR) A statistical test that evaluates the accuracy of a diagnostic procedure. Can be positive or negative.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) A type of imaging procedure.
Member checks A procedure utilized in naturalistic (qualitative) research in which the researchers present interpretations to participants to verify that the researcher's interpretations are consonant with the participants' experiences.
Meta-synthesis A research procedure in which all prior qualitative studies on a given topic are brought together and analyzed collectively.
Negative case In naturalistic (qualitative) studies, an example of a subject whose experience differs from other subjects or from the expected experience.
Negative likelihood ratio (NLR) The relative likelihood of having the disease if the patient has a negative test result. Symbolized as -LR.
Networking sampling AKA snowball sampling
Nursing assessment According to the U.S. Library of Medicine, nursing assessment is the evaluation of the nature and extent of nursing problems presented by a patient for the purpose of patient care planning.
Nursing diagnosis Clinical judgment about actual or potential individual, family, or community experiences/responses to health problems/life processes; provides basis for selection of nursing interventions. Goal: achieve outcomes for which the nurse has accountability.
Objectivity The conscientious practice among researchers of remaining unbiased, honest, and precise in order to avoid making unconscious choices when planning, conducting, and reporting the results of the study.
Open-label design Researchers, subjects, providers, and analysts all know to which group each subject has been assigned. Also referred to as Non-blinded research. Sometimes necessary due to the nature of the research.
Oral diagnosis Assessment of the oral cavity and the structures contained therein in order to diagnose and differentiate intraoral disease or identify manifestations in the oral cavity of systemic conditions.
Peer reviewer In a naturalistic (qualitative) study, a peer reviewer serves as an external analyst or critique the interpretations of the researchers. This procedure helps establish the credibility of the study.
Per-protocol/On-protocol A procedure in which the data analyzed from a study include only those subjects who completed the study, dropping data from subjects who did not complete.
Persistent observation Researchers being in the field for an extended period of time to establish rapport and gain the trust of participants so that they feel comfortable disclosing their experiences during data collection.
Pertinent negatives Diagnostic or assessment findings that are pertinent to other diagnoses and are negative for a particular diagnosis. Pertinent negatives help rule out items in the differential.
Positive likelihood ratio (PLR) The relative likelihood of having the disease if the patient has a positive test result. Symbolized by + LR.
Prolonged engagement Researchers being immersed in data collection long enough to provide depth to the data collected on the phenomenon.
PSA tests Prostate specific antigen test. It is used as a diagnostic tool for prostate cancer. The test is controversial due to its poor sensitivity.
Purpose sampling Sampling method that is often necessary when there are few cases of a specific problem, such as with a rare diagnosis or when researchers are interested in the experiences of specific subjects.
Purpose statement A statement in a publication that explains the reason the study was undertaken.
R correlation coefficient.
R2 coefficient of determination
Randomization A procedure for assigning subjects or intervention groups (placebo group, control group, experimental group, etc.) that ensures that every subject has an equal chance of being assigned to any group.
Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) A plot that compares the true positive rate to the false positive rate. A visual representation of the area under the curve (AUC) statistic. The greater the true positive rate compared to the false positive rate the stronger the diagnostic test.
Refereed publications Publications that are not only peer-reviewed but also come from journals that include primary research, systematic reviews, or meta-analyses.
Reference standard test The current standard or the gold standard. It is the test that is normally used or the test that has been shown to be the most accurate.
Reflexivity A practice of critical self-reflection through which researchers, especially naturalistic (qualitative) researchers, become conscious of how their views and perspectives might influence their inquiry.
Saturation The point at which participants are not providing new data to contribute to the analysis and the analysis is well defined and demonstrates variation. This concept is generally applied to naturalistic (qualitative) research.
Standard of care The usual practice utilized by other clinicians and experts in the region.
Test-retest method A procedure for testing the reliability of an instrument in which the instrument is administered to a small group of participants at one time and then the same instrument is administered a short time later (such as one week).
Theoretical sampling A procedure for selecting participants in a naturalistic (qualitative) study that ensures participants can provide data to inform the research question.
Transferability A characteristic of a naturalistic (qualitative) study that represents the degree to which the findings of the study are viewed as applicable to other situations.
Triangulation Procedures utilized to compare findings via different data sources. This concept is generally applied to naturalistic (qualitative) studies.
Tx treatment
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