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Operating Systems

Chapter 15 terms

QuestionAnswer
6TO4 TCP/IPv6, older tunneling protocol being replaced by the more powerful Teredo Or ISATAP protocols. Tunnels are used by IPv6 to transport IPv6 packets over IPv4 an network.
802.11 a/b/g/n The collective name for the IEEE.802.11 standards for local wireless networking, which is the technical name for Wi-Fi.
Adapter Address a 48 bit hardware address unique to every Network Interface Controller (NIC) device. Assigned by the manufacturer at the factory and embeded on the device. Address is often printed on the adapter in hexadecimal. Also known as "hardware Address"
AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) An encryption standard used by WPA2 and is currently the strongest encryption standard used by Wi-Fi.
Alternate IP Address When configuring TCP/IP in Windows, the static IP address that Windows uses if it cannot lease an IP address from a DHCP server.
Anycast Address Using TCP/IPv6, a tipe of IP address used by routers and identifies multiple destinations. Packets are delivered to the closest destination.
Automatic Private IP Address (APIPA) In TCP/IPv4, IP address in the address range 169.254.x.y, Used by a computer when it cannot successfully lease an IP address from a DHCP server.
Best-Effort Protocol A TCP/IP protocol such as UDP that works as the OSI Transport layer and does not guarantee delivery by first connecting and checking where data is received. It might be used for broadcasting, such as streaming video or sound over the web, where guaranteed
Channel A specific radio frequency within a broader frequency.
Class A A license for a range of IPv4 IP addresses that define a single octet, which is the network portion of the IP address in that license. The last three octets can be used for the host address or for subnetting the network.
Class B A license for a range of IPv4 IP addresses that defines the first two octets, which is used for the network portion of the IP address in that license. The last two octets can be used for the host addressor for subnetting the network.
Class C A license for a range of IPv4 IP addresses that define the first three octets, which is used for the network portion of the IP address in that license.
Classful Subnet Mask In TCP/IPv4, the subnet mask that is used if a network is not divided into subnets. It is called a classful subnet mask because the network portion of the IP address aligns with the class license.
Classless Subnet Mask in TCP/IPv4, the subnet mask takes some bits of the host portion of the IP address for the network ID and does not alighn the network portion of the IP address with the network octets assigned by the class license. Subnet mask can have a mix of Zeroes and
Client/Server Two computers communicating using a local network or the Internet. One computer takes on the role of making requests from the other computer. A computer making a request from another is called the client, and the one answering the request is called the se
Computer Name a name that identifies a computer, printer, or other device on a network which can be used instead of the computer's IP address to address the computer on the network. The host name together with the domain name is called the fully qualified domain name,
Connectionless Protocol A TCP/IP protocol such as UDP that works as the OSI Transport layer and does not guarantee delivery by first connecting and checking where data is received. It might be used for broadcasting, such as streaming video or sound over the web, where guaranteed
Connection-Oriented Protocol In networking, a TCP/ip protocol that confirms a good connection has been made before transmitting data to the other end, verifies data was received, and resends it if it is not. Example - TCP.
Default Gateway The gateway a computer uses on a network to access another network unless it knows to specifically use another gateway for quicker access.
DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) A protocol used by a server to assign a dynamic IP address to a computer when it first attempts to initiate a connection to the network and requests an IP address.
DHCP Client A computer of the other device (such as a network printer) that requests an IP address from a DHCP server.
DMZ Demilitarized Zone, Refers to removing firewall protection from a computer or network within an organization of protected computers and networks.
DNS (Domain Name System or Domain Name Service) A distributed pool of information that keeps trck of assigned host names and domain names and thier correspoinding IP addresses DNS alos refers to the system that allows a host to locate information in the pool and the protocol the system uses.
Dynamic IP Address An IP address assigned by a DHCP server for the current session only, is leased when the comptuer first connects to a networek. When the seesion is terminated, the IP address is returned to the list of available addresses.
FTP (FIle Transfer Protocol) A TCP/IP protocol and application that uses the internet to transfer files between two computers.
Fully Qualified Domian Name (FQDN) Identifies a computer and the network to which it belongs. Includes the comuter name, and domain name.
GAteway Any device or computer that network traffic can use to leave one network to enter another network.
Global Address TCP/IPv6 ip address that can be routed on the interent.
Global Unicast Address TCP/IPv6 ip address that can be routed on the interent.
Hardware Address a 48 bit hardware address unique to every Network Interface Controller (NIC) device. Assigned by the manufacturer at the factory and embeded on the device. Address is often printed on the adapter in hexadecimal.
Host name a name that identifies a computer, pritner, or other device on a network which can be used instead of the computer's IP address to address the computer on the network. The host name together with the domain name is called the fully qualified domain name,
Host File A file in the C:\Windows\system32\drivers\etc. folder that contains computer names and thier associated IP addresses on the local network. The file has no file extention.
HTTP (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol) the TCP/IP protocol used for the Wrold Wilde Web and used by web browsers and web servers to communicate.
HTTPS (Hyper Text Transfer Protocol Secure) the HTTP protocol working with a secureity protocol such as Secure Sockets Layer or Transport Layer Security.
Imap4 (Internet Message Access Protocol, Version 4) A protocol used by an email server and client that allows the client to manage email stored on the server without downloading the email.
Interface TCP/IPv6 A node's attachment to a link. The attachment can be a physical attachment or a logical attachment. Each interface is assigned an IP address.
Interface ID TCP/IPv6 the last 64 bits, or 4 blocks, of an IP address that identify the interface.
Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4) a grou of TCP/IP standards that use IP addresses that have 32 bits.
Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6) A group of TCP/IP standards that use IP addresses that have 128 bits.
Intranet Any private network that uses TCP/IP protocols.
IP address a 32 or 128 bit address used to uniquely identify a device or interface on a network that uses TCP/IP protocols. First numbers identify a network, last numbers identify a host.
ISATAP Intra-Site Automatic Tunnel Addressing Protocol. TCP/IPv6 a tunneling protocolthat has been developed for IPv6 packets to travel over an IPv4 network.
Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP) a protocol used by various client applications when the application needs to query a database.
Link TCP/IPv6 a local area network or wide area netwrok bounded by routers.
Link-Local Address TCP/IPv6 An IP address used for communicationg among nodes in the same link and is allowed on the Internet.
Link-Local Unicast Address TCP/IPv6 An IP address used for communicationg among nodes in the same link and is allowed on the Internet.
Local Area Network (LAN) A network bound by routers or other gateway devices
Local Link TCP/IPv6 a local area network or wide area netwrok bounded by routers.
Loop Back 127.0.0.1 lovingly known as "Home". An IP address that indicates your own computer and is used to test TCP/IP confiration on the computer.
MAC (Media Access Control) Address a 48 bit hardware address unique to every Network Interface Controller (NIC) device. Assigned by the manufacturer at the factory and embeded on the device. Address is often printed on the adapter in hexadecimal. Also known as "hardware Address"
Multicast Address TCP/IPv6 an IP address used when packets are delivered to all nodes on a network.
Multicasting TCP/IPv6 one host sends messages to multiple hosts.
Multiple Input/Multiple Output (MIMO) a feature of the IEEE.802.11N standard for wireless networking whereby two or more antennas are used at both ends of transmissions to improve performance.
Name Resolution The Process of associating a character based name with an IP address.
NAT (Network Address Translation) A TCP/IP protocol that substitutes the public IP address of the router for the private IP address of the other computer when these computers need to communicate on the internet.
Neighbors TCP/IPv6 two or more nodes on the same link.
Network Adapter An expansion card that plugs into a computer's motherboard and provides a port to connect the computer to a network. Also known as NIC - Network Interface Card
Octet TCP/IPv4 Each of the four numbers that are separated by periods and make up a 32 bit IP address.
Packet A segment of data sent over a network as a unit that contains the data and information at the beginning of the segment that identifies the type of data, where it came from, and where it is going. AKA datapacket and datagram.
Physical Address a 48 bit hardware address unique to every Network Interface Controller (NIC) device. Assigned by the manufacturer at the factory and embeded on the device. Address is often printed on the adapter in hexadecimal.
POP3 (Post Office Protocol version 3) The Protocol that an email server and client used when the client requests the downloading of email messages.
Port As applied to services running on a computer, a number assigned to a process on a computer so that the process can be found by TCP/IP. Physical connector, usually at the back of a computer, that allows a cable from a perpheral device, such as a printer, m
Port Address As applied to services running on a computer, a number assigned to a process on a computer so that the process can be found by TCP/IP. Physical connector, usually at the back of a computer, that allows a cable from a perpheral device, such as a printer, m
Port Filtering Used by firewalls to protect a network or computer. To open or close certain ports so they can or cannot be used.
Port Forwarding A technique used to allow communication from a program or device on the internet to connect to another device on a different network.
Port Number As applied to services running on a computer, a number assigned to a process on a computer so that the process can be found by TCP/IP. Physical connector, usually at the back of a computer, that allows a cable from a perpheral device, such as a printer, m
Port Triggering When a firewall opens a port because a comptuer behind the firewall initiates communication on another port.
Private IP Address An IP address that is used on a private network isolated from the internet.
Protocols A set of rules and standards that two entities use for communication.
Public IP Addresses An IP address available to the Internet.
Quality of Service (QoS) A feature used by Windows and network hardware devices to improve network performance for an application that is not getting the best network performance.
Radio Frequency The frequency of waves generated by a radio signal. which are electromagnetic frequencies above audio and below light.
Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) the protocol used by Windows Remote Desktop and Remote Assistance utilities to connect to and control a remote computer.
Router A device that manages traffic between two or more networks and can help find the best path for traffic to get from one network to another.
Sercure FTP (SFTP) A TCP/IP protocol used to transfer files from an FTP server to an FTP client using encryption.
Secure Shell (SSH) a protocol used to pass login information to a remote computer and control that coputer over a network using encryption.
Server Message Block (SMB) A protocol used by windows to share files and printers on a network.
Service Set identifier (SSID) The name of a wireless netowrk.
SIM (Subscriber Identification Module) Card A small flash memory card that contains all the information a device needs to connect to a cellular network.
Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) A TCP/IP Protocol used to monitor network traffic.
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) A TCP/IP protocol used by email clients to send email messages to an email server and onto the recipient's email server, See PoP and IMAP.
SMTP Auth (SMTP Authentication) An improved version of SMTP and used to authenticate a user to an email server when the email client first tries to connect to the email server.
Static IP Address a permanent IP address that is manually assigned.
Subnet A group of local networks when several networks are tied together in a subsystem of the larger intranet.
Subnet ID TCP/IPv6 the last block in the 64bit prefix of an ip address. the subnet is identified using some or all of these 16 bits.
Subnet Mask TCP/IPv4, 32 bits that can include a series of ones followed by zeroes. Ones identify the network portion and Zeroes identify the host portions of an IP address tells Widnows if a remote computer is on the same or different network.
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) The Protocol in the TCP/IP suite of protocols that works at the OSI Transport layer and establishes a session or connection between parties and guarantees packet delivery.
TCP/IP The group or suite of protocols used for almost all networks, including the internet. TCP is responsible for error checking tramsmissions and IP is responsible for routing
Telnet a TCP?IP protocol used by the telnet client/server applications to allow an administrator or other user to control a computer remotely.
Teredo A TCP/IPv6 protocol that allows for IPv6 transmissions through IPv4 protocols
TKIP (Temporal Key Integrity Protocol) A type of encryptyion protocol used by wpa to secure a wireless Wi-Fi Network See WPA
UDP (User Datagram Protocol) A connectionless TCP/IP protocol that works at the OSI Transport layer and does not requrie a connection to send a packet or guarantee that the packet arrives at its destination. commonly used for broadcasting to multiple nodes ona network or internet.
Unicast Address TCP/IPv6 An IP address assigned to a single node on a network.
Unicque Local Address (ULA) TCP/IPv6 an address used to identify a specific site within a large organization. can work on multiple links within the same organization. Address is a hybrid between a global unicast address that works on the internet and a link local unicast address tha
Unique Local Unicast Address TCP/IPv6 an address used to identify a specific site within a large organization. can work on multiple links within the same organization. Address is a hybrid between a global unicast address that works on the internet and a link local unicast address tha
Virtual Private Network (VPN) Security technique that uses encrypted data packets between a provate network and a computer somewhere on the internet.
WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy) An encryption protocol used to secure transmission on a Wi-Fi wirelss network. No longer considered secure because the key used is static.
Wi-FI (Wireless Fidelity) the common name for standards for a local wireless network as defined by IEEE.802.11
Wi-FI Protected Setup (WPS) A method used to secure a wireless network from an outside attack and was designed to make it easier for users to connect thier computers to a wireless network when a hard to remoember SSID and security key are used.
Wireless Access Point A wireless device that is used to create and manage a wireless network.
Wireless Wide Area Network (WWAN) A cellular network for computers and mobile devices using broadband.
WPA (Wi-Fi Protocol Access) A data encryption method for Wireless networks that use the TKIP encryption method and the encryption keys are changed at set intervals while the wireless LAN is in use. WPA stronger than WEP.
WPA2 (Wi-Fi Protocol Access 2) A data encryption standard compliant with the IEEE802.11i standard that uses the Advanced Encryption Standard protocol. Currently the strongest wireless encryption standard.