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MEDT401 Ch. 8-11

Area under the curve (AUC) Ratio of the FP rate to the TP rate produces a proportion AKA "under the curve". AUC of 0.50 (50%) means diagnostic test is no better than chance. AUC of 1.0 (100%) means diagnostic test is perfectly accurate.
Assessment Collecting data w/which a diagnosis can be tested. Process is ID signs & symptoms of disease & recording the associated data for the purpose of informing a diagnosis. Assessment is not dx; it is a process of data collection an the collected data itself.
Audit trail Record of decisions made through a naturalistic (qualitative study that can be referenced by a peer reviewer or an external auditor in assessing the trustworthiness of the study.
Blind Procedure through which individuals (subjects, clinicians, and/or data analysts) are kept uninformed of the designation of subjects to study groups.
Cohen’s d A statistic that shows effect size. A d score of 0.80 is considered a large effect. 0.20 is a small effect, 0.50 is a medium effect, I.I0 is a very large effect, and 1.40 or higher is an extremely large effect.
Cohen’s kappa A statistic that shows inter-rater reliability for categorical data. A score of 0.80 or higher is generally considered an indication of a high level of consistency, meaning the data are reliable.
Complete history Process for collecting information about a patient designed to elucidate a patient's entire health status. A complete history covers all body systems.
Computed tomography (CT) A type of imaging procedure.
Constant comparative method Interview data are analyzed after each participant's interview and the data from one interview are compared to the data from the other interviews; therefore. data collection and analysis occur simultaneously.
Correlation studies Interview data are analyzed after each participant's interview and the data from one interview are compared to the data from the other interviews; therefore. data collection and analysis occur simultaneously.
Credibility The degree to which data collection and interpretation are plausible. This concept is generally applied to naturalistic (qualitative) research.
Defensive medical practice Excessive use of diagnostic procedures to avoid lawsuits by showing that every available measure was employed.
Dependability The degree to which the interpretations in a naturalistic (qualitative) study are consistent with the data collected.
Differential diagnosis Systematically comparing and contrasting results of diagnostic measures in order to determine which one of two or more diseases or conditions a patient is suffering from.
Dx Diagnosis
Exclusion criteria Characteristics (such as age, diagnosis. comorbidities, gender, etc.) that result in an individual being excluded from participating in a study. In many cases, exclusion criteria relate to risks of harm from the study intervention.
External validity The degree to which the findings of the study are generalizable to the population and to a similar healthcare context.
Extraneous variables Undesirable variables that interfere with the intended purpose of the investigation by introducing error to the study and affecting the dependent variable or outcome. AKA intervening variables.
Focused history A process for collecting information about a patient designed to elucidate a specific problem and differentiate between critical and noncritical causes. A focused history covers only the relevant body systems.
Gold standard The test that is known to be the most accurate, regardless of cost, invasiveness or other considerations.
Inclusion criteria Characteristics (such as age, diagnosis, comorbidities, gender, etc.) that must be satisfied in order for an individual to be included in a study.
Institutional Review Board (IRB) Organization reviews research proposals & regulates research activities. Can be internal or external & must be approved by the Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP), agency within the U.S. Department of Health & Human Services that oversees IRBs.
Intention-to-treat analysis Procedure in which the data analyzed from a study include participants who completed at least one follow-up. The most rigorous approach is to utilize both per-protocol (on-protocol) and intent-to-treat and compare the results to see if they differ.
Internal validity A characteristic of research design that relates to the degree to which the outcomes of the study can be attributed to the interventions.
Inter-rater reliability Degree to which the data collected are consistent between different researchers. Measured via Cohen's Kappa test. Used in systematic reviews & meta-analyses to assess reviewer consistency in procedures for selecting & for critically appraising studies.
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