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Performance Philos

Performance Enhancement Philosophies

TermDefinition
Cardiovascular Fitness The ability of the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to function efficiently when a person exercises the body
Muscular endurance is the ability to sustain submaximal activity for extended periods of time and resist fatigue.
Power is ability to exert muscular strength rapidly. On the field, power combines speed and strength.
Speed is the ability to perform a motor skill as rapidly as possible.
Strength is the maximum amount of force that one can generate in a specific movement pattern at a specific velocity of contraction. 
Overload what muscle have to do in order to improve strength
specificity how muscles adapt to nature of work performed.
reversibility when muscles disuse leads to a decrease in strength and muscle mass.
periodization is a systematic training plan used by athletes to train in order to be in the best condition
adaptation Body changes in response to increased training load
cardiovascular system Also known as the circulatory system.
Chambers of the heart 4 chambers: 2 Atriums and 2 Ventricles
Valves of the heart 4 Valves: Tricuspid, Bicuspid (Mitral), Pulmonary, and Aortic
Main Blood Vessles 4 Main Vessels: Vena Cava, Pulmonary Artery, Pulmonary Vein, Aorta
VO2 Max the maximum amount of oxygen your body can use during exercise
Test to Measure VO2 Max Harvard Step Test
Test to Measure VO2 Max 12 minute run test
Anaerobic exercises is exercise, performed in short or fast bursts in which the heart cannot supply oxygen as fast as muscles use it.
aerobic exercises is steady activity done at an intensity that raises the heart rate into the target heart rate zone.
Warm-Ups used to prevent injury.
Cool-down a period of time where you slow down and walk or perform slow, static stretches.
Interval Training This involves periods of work followed by periods of rest. (anaerobic)
Continuous Training the athlete does not stop working. It improves AEROBIC fitness.
Fartlek Training Swedish word that means SPEED PLAY. Combines fast and slow running.
Circuit Training Involves a number of exercises or stations. It includes strength, endurance, power, flexibility and speed. (aerobic and anaerobic)
BORG scale How we measure the rate of perceived exertion
Target Heart Rate the minimum number of heartbeats in a given amount of time in order to reach the level of exertion necessary for cardiovascular fitness
High Altitudes greater than 2000 meter there is less oxygen
Acclimatization The process in which an individual organism adjusts to a gradual change in its environment.
Slow twitch Type I muscle fibers. More efficient at using oxygen for continuous, muscle contractions over a long time. (aerobic)
Fast twitch Type II muscle fibers. Generate short burst of strength or speed. Fatigue quickly
Isometric muscles contract, but there is no motion in the affected joints.
Isotonic when the muscle lengthens and shortens during movement, with the force remaining constant.
Isokentic machine controlled speed of contraction within range of motion.
Concentric Isotonic contraction that shortens the muscle.
Eccentric isotonic contraction that lengthens the muscle.
Open Chain Exercise when your hand or foot is free to move during an exercise.
Closed Chain Exercise when your hand or foot are in a constant, fixed position.
plyometrics Jump Training that is used for strength and speed.
flexibility ability of the joint to move freely through full range of motion
range of motion (ROM) The entire movement through which a body part can move at a joint.
static stretching Gradual stretching of a muscle through the muscle’s entire range of motion
ballistic stretching stretches that involve rhythmical bouncing action
dynamic stretching continuous, slow, and controlled movement through a joint's range of motion.
Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) Combination of contraction and relaxation of muscles
Created by: ntgibson