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dental terms

Stack #202874

xerostomia Dryness of the mouth caused by the lack of normal saliva secetion.
-trophy development
-tomy incision
-scope instrument
-rrhea discharge
-plasty surgical repair
-phobia dread, fear
-opsy veiw
-ology study of
-ectomy surgical removal of
-cyte cell
-ate,-ize use/action
-algia pain
-rrhage bleeding
-ent agent
-pathy disease
-oma tumor
-ium small, little
-itis inflamation of
-ion state, condition
-id condition
-cele swelling, hernia
xanth/o yellow
cyan/o blue
albus white
erythr/o red
leuk/o white
chlor/o green
melan/o black
alba violet
temporal temporal bone
stoma mouth
orthos straight, proper order
mucosa tissue lining an orifice
mesial middle, mid-plane
maxilla upper jaw
mandible lower jaw
lingua tongue
labial lip area
incisor incisor tooth
glossa tongue
gingiva gum tissue
fluoride chemical
enamel tooth enamel tissue
distal farthest from center
dens tooth
occlude occluding jaw, bite
coronal crown
cheilo lip
buccal cheek
axis midline
apical apex of a root
alveolar alveolus
necrotic dead tissue
mastication chewing
myopathy muscle disease
lipoma fat tumor
alveolus air sac
anesthesia without feeling
vesicle small blister
etchant etching
un- non/not
tachy- fast
neo- new
mal- bad
dis- remove
contra- against
con- with
brady- slow
anti- opposite
trans- through
syn- together
supra- above/over
sub- lesser than
retro- behind/back
pre/ante- before
post- after/late
peri/o- around
para- near/besides
mes/o- mid,among
inter- in midst of
infra- under/below
in- into/in/not
im- into/position
ex/o- out from
epi- upon/over
endo- within
abrade to wear away by friction
abnormal tooth mobility excessive movement of a tooth within its socket as a result of changes in the supporting tissues caused by injury or disease
abnormal departing from the norm
ablation an amputation or excision of any part of the body, or a removal of a growth or harmful substance.
abfraction area the part of the tooth, most commonly the cervical area, that is affected by the loss of dentin and enamel due to flexure and material fatigue.
abfraction a mechanism that explains the loss of dentin tissue and tooth enamel caused by flexure and ultimate material fatigue of susceptible teeth at locations away from the point of loading.
aberrant deviating from the usual or normal course, location, or action.
abduction the process of abducting; opposite of adduction
abduct to draw away from the median line or from a neighboring part or limb
abdomen the portion of the body between the thorax and the pelvis
abatement a decrease in severity of pain or symptoms
abrasive, finishing the application of abrasive materials in order to eliminate surface imperfections
dentifrice abrasion the wearing away of the cementum and dentin of an exposed root my an abrasive
PDR Physician's desk reference
RDH Registered Dental Hygienist
HIV Human Immunodeficiency virus
MPD Maximum permissible dose
MSDS Material saftey data sheet
Bi- two/double
Hyper- over/excess
Ultra- extreme/beyond
pan- all around
micro- small/little
macro- large
hypo- under/below
syncope a temporary loss of consciousness resulting from an inadequate supply of blood to the brain; also known as wooning or fainting.
abacterial non-bacterial; free from bacteria
abandonment the withdrawing of a patient from treatment without giving reasonable notice or providing a competent replacement.
ALARA As Low As Reasonably Achievable
dia- complete
Palpitation condition of racing or increased heartbeat
aesthesia loss of pain sensation
suture stitch or staple repairing or closing a wound
esthetics pertaining to beauty
dye coloring material; may be used to indicate plaque
fascial pertaining to the filorous membrane on muscles
suture area or line where two bones unite, such as coronal suture
palpation use of hand or finger pressure to locate/examine
axillary underarm site; may be used to obtain body temp.
a nativitate the state of existing at birth or from infancy; denotes a congenital disability
aa of each
ad- toward/near
abrasion the process of weraing away either by mechanical processes or by natural processes
semi- half
ANUG acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis
Prim/i- first
ab- away from
ab beforehand; a notice given previouslt or a condition existing earlier
uni- one
FFD Film focus distance or focal film distance
DDS/DMD Doctor of dental surgery/ Doctor of dental medicine
mon/o- one
CDA Certified Dental Assistant
tri- three
HVE high volume evacuation
quad/quat- four
eponyms terms named after the person that discovered the area, disease, or instrument
PID Position Indicating Device
a- an- without
hemi- half
ZOE Zinc Oxide Eugenol
ecto- out side
die tooth or bridge pattern used in prosthodontic dentistry
auxiliary helping subsidiary, such as dental assistant
facial pertaining to the face, or front surface of incisor tooth
ante- infront
de- down from
poly- many
temporal two fan-shaped bones, one on each side of the skull, in the temporal area above each ear.
parietal two bones,one on each side, that make up the roof and side walls covering the brain.
frontal a single bone in the frontal or anterior region that makes up the forehead.
occipital one large,thick bone at the lower back of the head that forms the base of the skull and contains a large opening for the spinal chord passage to the brain.
ethmoid a spongy bone located between the eye orbits that helps form the roof and part of the anterior nasal fossa of the skull
sphenoid a large bone at the base of the skull, situated between the parietal and temporal bones on each side.
zygomatic two facial bones, one under each eye, that form and give shape to the cheekbone.
malar another word for the zygomatic bones
maxilla two facial bones, one under each eye, that unite in the center to form the upper jaw and support the maxillary teeth
palatine two bones, one each on the left and the right, that form the hard palate of the mouth and the nasal floor.
nasal two bones, one left and one right, that form the arch or bridge of the nose.
lacrimal two bones, one each, at the inner side or nose site of the orbital cavity.
inferior nasal conchae two thin, scroll-like bones that form the lower part of the interior of the nasal cavity.
vomer a single bone that forms the lower posterior part of the nasal septum.
auditory ossicles small bones in the ear
malleus largest of the three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the ear mallet.
incus one of three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the anvil
stapes one of three ossicles in the middle ear; commonly called the stirrup.
hyoid horseshoe-shaped bone lying at the base of the tongue.
sinus an air pocket or cavity in a bone that lightens the bone, warms the air intake, and helps form sounds.
ethmoid sinus located in the ethmoid bone at the side of each eye.
sphenoid sinus located in the sphenoid bone situated behind the eyes.
frontal sinus located in the frontal bone or the forehead above each eye.
maxillary sinus located in the maxilla; the maxillary sinus is the largest
atrium of Highmore maxillary sinus
sagittal the union line between the two parietal bones on the top of the skull.
coronal junction of the frontal and the parietal bones; babys "soft spot"
lambdoid located between the parietal bone and the upper border of the occipital bone.
temporoparietal located between the temporal and parietal bones
squamous temporoparietal
posterior nasal spine located in the upper arch between the nasal bone and superior maxilla.
median palatine suture the union between the palatine bones
incisive suture located in the anterior area of the pre-maxilla and palatine processes.
nasion a point where the nasofrontal suture is cute across by the middle plane of the skull.
process a projection or outgrowth of bone or tissue
symphysis in the center of the manible, forms the chin
chin protuberance symphysis that forms the chin
alveolar bone growth or border of the maxilla and the mandible; makes up and forms the tooth sockets
condyloid prosterior growth on the ramus of the madible
cronoid anterior growth on the ramus of the mandible that forms as an attachment position for the temoralis muscle.
infraorbital growth process from the zygomatic bone that articulates with the maxilla to form the lower side of the eye orbit
mastoid growth on the temporal bone behind the ear that is used for muscle attachment
pterygoid growth
pterygoid hamulus a hook like end that serves as a a site for muscle attachment
styloid small, pointed growth from the lower border of the temporal bone; serves as a bone position for attachment of some tongue muscles
foramen an opening or hole in the bone for nerve and vessel passage
external auditory meatus a large opening in the temporal bone used for the passage of auditory nerves and vessels
magnum opening in the occipital bone for spinal cord passage
mandibular located on the lingual side of the ramus of the mandible; permits nerve and vessel passage
mental opening situated on left and right anterior areas of the mandible; used for passage of nerve and vessels
lingual small opening in the center of the mental spine for nerve passage to the incisor area
incisive an opening in the maxilla behind the central incisors on the midline
supraorbital an opening in the frontal bone above the eye orbit
infraorbital an opening in the maxilla under the eye orbit
palatine anterior and posterior openings in the hard palate
zygomaticofacial an opening in the zygomatic bone
periosteum fibrous membrane covering bones
mucoperiosteum when the periosteum has a mucous surface
lining mucosa mucous membrane that lines the inner surfaces of the lips and cheeks
masticatory mucosa elastic type of mucous membrane that undergoes stress and pull; located around the alveolar area of the teeth and lines the hard palate
specialized mucosa smoother mucous tissue found on the dorsal side of the tongue
ramus ascending part of the mandible that arises from the curved, lower arch
angle of the mandible area along the lower edge of the mandible where the upward curve of the mandible forms
sigmoid notch s-shaped curvature between the condyle and coronoid processes
mylohyoid ridge bony ridge on the lingual surface of the mandible
oblique line slanted, bony growth ridge on the facial side of the mandible
retromolar area the space located to the rear of the mandibular molars
mandibular notch an indentation on the lower border of the mandible, near the angle where the ramus starts into its upright position
articulates comes together
condyle rests in a depression in the temporal bone
glenoid depression the condyle rests in
articular eminence forms the anterior boundary of the fossa and helps maintain the mandible in position
meniscus articular disc that cushions inbetween the glenoid and the articular eminence
synovial fluid cuchions and lubricates the joint as it works in a hinge action movement
temporal muscle a fan-shaped muscle on each side of the skull; elevates and lowers the jaw and can draw the mandible backward
masseter muscle the muscle that closes the mouth; the principal mastication muscle
internal pterygoid muscle (wing-shapped)muscle that raises the mandible to close the jaw
external pterygoid muscle muscle that opens the jaw and thrusts the mandible forward; assists with lateral movement
orbicularis oris muscle "kissing muscle" a circular muscle surrounding the mouth that compacts, compresses, and protrudes the lips
buccinator muscle principal cheek muscle; compresses the cheek, expels air through the lips, and aids in food mastication
mentalis muscle muscle of the chin (mental) that moces the chin tissue and raises or lowers the lower lip
trigeminal nerve (three branches) dental and face nerve, involved in teeth and facial sensation and tongue movement
ganglion mass of nerves
ophthalmic nerve a sensory nerve division with three branches
lactimal nerve branch provides sensation for the lactimal gland and eye conjunctiva
frontal nerve branch provides sensation for the forehead, scalp, upper eyelid, and nasal root
nasociliary nerve branch provides sensation for nose, eye, and eyebrow
maxillary nerve a sensory division of the trigeminal nerve, with several branches
anterior palatine nerve branch provides sensation for the hard palate, and mucous membrane for molars and premolar teeth
periosteum mucous membrane for molar and premolar teeth
middle palatine nerve branch provides sensation for the soft palate, the uvula (hangy ball thing), and the upper or soft part of the palate
posterior palatine nerve branch provides sensation for the tonsils and the soft palate
nasoplaltine nerve branch provides sensation for the mose and the palate
infraorbital nerve branch subdivides into three parts: anterior, middle, and posterior
anterior part of the infraorbital nerve branch provides sensation to maxillary centrals, laterals, and canines
middle part of the infraorbital nerve branch procides sensation to the maxillary premolars and the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary first molar
posterior part of the infraorbital nerve branch provides sensation to the maxillary second and third molar, and to the remaining roots of the maxillary first molar
zygomatic nerve branch prvides sensation to the lacimal and upper cheek area
sphenopalatine nerve branch sensory nerve ending for the maxillary anterior mucosal and palatine tissues
mandibular nerve mexed nerve division that registers sensation and causes movement
inferior alveolar nerve branch provides sensation to the mandibular teeth
mylohyoid nerve branch provides sensation to some muscles in the floor of the mouth
mental nerve branch provides sensation to the skin of chin and the lower lip
incisive nerve branch provides sensation to the anterior teeth and alveoli
lingual nerve branch provides some sensation to the tongue and causes some movement
buccal nerve branch provides sensation to the buccal gingiva and mucosa
vascular small vessels
artery carries blood away from the heart
vein takes blood to the heart
carotid artery rises from the aorta right and left and divides in the neck to form two arteries
internal carotid artery blood supply to the brain and eyes
external carotid artery branches to the throat, face, tongue, and ears
infraorbital branch of the external carotid artery provides blood to the maxillary anterior teeth
inferior alveolar branch of the external carotid artery provides blood to the mandibular teeth
facial branch of the external carotid artery provides blood the the face, tonsils, palate, and submandibular gland
lingual branch of the external carotid artery divides into branches to serve the tongue, tonsil, soft palate, and throat
maxillary branch of the external carotid artery provides blood to the maxillary teeth
jugular vein transports blood from the head to the heart; drains to the internal jugular through three divisions
facial division of the jugular vein carries blood from the face surfaces
maxillary division of the jugular vein carries blood from the maxillary region
pterygoid venus plexus division of the jugular vein (network) collects the blood supply from the head
capillaries tiny blood vessels that help to transport blood from the veins to the arteries
expectorate spit
serum watery fluid
mucin sticky, slimy secretion that forms musus
enzymes body produced chemicals(to digest food)
parotid gland the largest salivary gland, located near the ear; produces serus salica, which empties into the mouth near the maxillary second molar throught the Stenson's duct(to lead)
submandibular gland a smaller gland located on the lower side of the face that secretes mucin and serus fluids with enzymes; empties through the Whartons's, or submandibular, duct openings under the tongue on each side of the lingual fremum
sublingual gland smallest major salivary gland, situated in the floor of the mouth; secretes mucin through multiple ducts; many other small glands are nearby, functioning to keep mouth tissues moist
lymph vessels that transport lymph fluids of plasma, water, and waste products
lymph capillaries tiny vessels or tubes that carry lymph fluid
lymph node a mass of lymph cells forming a unit of lymphatic tissue that are named after the formation site
axillary (pertaining to the armpit) lymph nodes located under the armpit
cervical (pertaining to the neck) lymph nodes found in the neck
inguinal (pertaining to the groin) lymph nodes found in the abdomen
tonsil a lymphatic tissue mass found in the posterior of the throat between the anterior and posterior fauces and on the back of the tongue; tonsils act as filters, aid in the production of disease-fighting immune responses, and may help immunity
adenoid lymphatic tissue found in the nasopharynx area; may provide protection similar to tonsils
antigens foreign, pathogenic substances intoduced into or produced by the body
antibody protein material, manufactured by the body, that destroys antigens; antibodies are the basis fro the immune response
lymphocytes lymph cells that assist in body defenses; two types
B-lymphocytes produce antibodies to destroy antigens
T-lymphocytes also called T-cells; produced in the thymus; assist with the immune system to destroy foreign cells and pathogens
immunoglobulin plasma-made proteins, produced in lymph tissue, that are capable of acting as antibodies in the immune response
interferon proteins produced by cells exposed to viruses; help to provide immunity to unaffected cells
phagocytes white blood cells that ingest and destroy antigens in a process
phagocytosis process of white blood cells ingesting and destroying antigens
macrophages (type of phagocyte) large phagocyte cells that ingest antigens and inflammatory bodies
microphanges (Type of phagocyte) neutophilic cells that ingest smaller matter, such as bacteria
superior oris upper lip
inferium oris lower lip
labial commissure area at the corners of the mouth where the lips meet
vermilion border area where the pink-red lip tissue meets the facial skin
philtrum median groove in the center external sirface of the upper lip
caruncle small, fleshy mucous tissue elevations under the tongue
frenum a triangular peice of tissue
frena plural of frenum
labial frenum(2) tissue that attaches the inside of the lip to the mucous membrane in the anterior of the oral cavity. they occur in both the maxillary and the mandibular arches
lingual frenum(1) attaches the lower side of the tongue to the floor membrane
ankyloglossia if the lingual frenum is too short (tongue tied)
buccal frenum(2) attaches the inside of the cheek to the oral cavity in the maxillary first molar area. left and right sides
deglutition swallowing
median sulcus groove, depression (divides the top of the tongue into two parts)
papillae tissue growth (taste buds)
dorsal (back) back surface of the tongue
circumvallate the largest, V-shaped papillae, situated on the dorsal aspect of the tongue; sense bitter tastes
filiform the smallest, hair-like papillae covering the entire dorsal aspect of the tongue; do not sense taste
fungiform small, dark-red papillae on the middle and anterior dorsal surface and along the sides of the tongue; sense sweet, sour, and salty tastes
foliate on the posterior lateral borders of the tongue, and can be seen if the tongue is grasped with gauze and extended; sense sour tastes
palate or roof of the mouth (hard palate or soft palate)
hard palate composed of the palatine processes of the maxillae bones; covered with mucous membrane
rugae irregular folds or bumps on the surface of the hard palate
incisive papilla tissue growth situated at the anterior portion of the palate behind the maxillary centrals; the site for infiltration injection of local anesthesia
palatine raphe (ridge between the union of two halves) white streak in the middle of the palate
soft palate flexible protion of the palate; area where the gag reflex is present
uvula tissue structure hanging from the palate in the posterior of the oral cavity
vestibule open gum area between the teeth and the cheek
fauces constricted opening or passage leading from the mouth to the oral pharynx, bound by the soft palate, the base of tongue, and the palatine arches. the fauces have two pillars
glossopalatine arch anterior pillars
pharyngopalatine posterior pillars
prosthodontist replaces missing teeth with artificial appliances such as a full mouth denture or partial bridgework
periodontist treats diseases of periodontal (gingiva and supporting) tissues
orthodontist corrects malocclusion and improper jaw alignment
pediatric dentist preforms dental procedures for children; also called pedodontist
endodontist treats the diseased pulp and periradicular structures
oral and maxillofacial surgeon performs surgical treatment of the teeth, jaws, and related areas
public health dentist works on causes and prevention of common dental diseases and promotes dental health to the communtiy or general population
oral pathologist studies the nature, diagnosis, and control of oral disease
oral and maxillofacial radiologist is concerned with the production and interpretation of radiant energy images or data regarding the oral and maxillofacial regions
forensic dentist discovers and uses pathological evidence for legal proceedings; forensic dentistry is not yet established as a recognized specialty but is organized and realted to a particular type of dental care
ADA american dental association
EFDA expanded function dental auxiliary
ADHP advances dental hygiene practitioner
ADHA American dental hygienist's association
dental assistant aids the dentist in diagnosis, treatment, and dental care
DANB dental assisting national board
RHS radiation health and saftey
COA certified orthodontic assistant
CDPMA certified dental practice management assistant
ADAA american dental assistants association
dental laboratory technician performs dental lab procedures under written orders from a licensed dentist
CDT certified dental technician
NADL National association of dental laboratories
denturist specializes in the construction of dentures and may practice only in those states that recognize, license, and permit this profession
shaft or handle used to grasp the instrument; supplied in various weights, diameters, and surfaces that may be smooth or serrated
shank connects the handle to the working end; sometimes called the unstrument neck
working end also called blade or nib; rounded end is the toe, pointed end is the tip
armamentarium set up used for most procedures
mouth mirror used for reflection, retraction, and ciual observation
explorer a sharp, flexible, pointed instrument used to detect caries and calculus, to explore restorations, surfaces and furcations, to make location marks, and to pick up conton points or materials;
cotton forceps tweezer-like pinchers used to transport materials to or from the mouth; also called dressing pliers; available with or without a serrated tip
periodontal probe a longer pointed instrument with measured marks on the tip; used to assess depth of tissue pockets; available with a round or flat blade and may be color-coded to help determine measurements
expro double- ended instrument with a diagnosing probe tip at one end and an explorer tip at the other end
pen-probe and double-ended instrument with a probe-marking tip on one end and a pen on the opposite end
scaler thin-bladed hand instrument with pointed tip and two cutting edges; used to scale(scrape off) hard deposits from teeth
sickle scaler sharp blade in the shape of a sickle; used to remove calculus from tooth surfaces
curette round-tipped thin blade with a longer neck and two cutting edges; used to remove subgingival deposits
implant scaler/curette non-metalic, resin-tipped instrument, designed to remoce deposits around titanium implant abutments
periodontal knife hand instrument with flat-bladed incision tip of various shapes and angles; used to remove or recontour soft tissue.
scalpel handle for attachment of blades of assorted sizes and shapes; used to incise(cut into) or remove tissue; also used in specialized dental procedures
excavator hand instrument with long-necked, cup-like, sharp-edged blades; used to remove soft, decayed tissue from preparations
gingival margin trimmer hand instrument with long, slender, curved, flat blade; used to break away enamel margins during tooth preparations
hoe smaller bladed instrument with a tip resembling a farm hoe; used to break or pull away enamel tissue during preparations
hatchet hand instument with a sharp-edge, hatchet-like tip; used to remove hard tissue
chisel hand instument with cutting edge that is used to cut away enamel tissue
cleoid/discoid carver double-ended, long-necked carving instrument with a pointed tip on one end and a disc-shaped blade on the other end; used to carve anatomy features in newly places restorations, or can be used to remove decay and tooth tissue during cavity prepertaions
carver thin-bladed hand instrument used to remove decay or carve newly placed restorative material; blade faces come in various shapes; a popular type is the Hollenback
plastic filling instrument(PFI) hand instrument with a flat blade; used to carry, transfer, and to pack materials, or to carve restorative materials
condenser hand instrument with a thick, rounded or ocal shaped, flat head that is sometimes serrated. It is used to pack or condense restoratice material into the cavity preparation
burnisher hand instrument with a smooth, rounded head that comes in various shapes; used to smooth out restorative material or other metal surfaces, such as a matrix strip
beaver-tail burnisher a burnisher with a beaver tail-shaped blade extending from the round nip or tip; used to smoothe and carve restorative material while in the plastic, pliable shape, and to apply medication such as dycal to a cavity preparation
amalgam carrier hand instrument with holding cylinder for the transfer of amalgam material while in a plastic form; has a spring lever pusher to expel the material into the preparation
matrix holder, matrix strip, wedge holder device used to maintain artificial wall around the tooth preparation. A wooden or resin triangular wedge is used to hold the strip in place and prevent the material from leaking
file hand instrument with a flat blade with serrated edging; used to smoothe off and contour restorations or hard surfaces
high-volume evacuator(HVE) curved, metal or resin, beveled tip with a large hole; inserted into a high-evacuation tube system handle with off/on and intensity controls; used for gross removal of fluids and debris from the mouth
saliva ejector tip smaller suction tip that is inserted into the evacuation tubing from the dental unit; used for steady,constant fluid remocal from the oral cavity
cuspidor basin
straight handpeice (SHP) straight handpeice with no head; instruments are inserted directly into opening and held in place by engaging the manual or automatic tightening device in the unit's handpeice
contra-angle handpeice (CAHP) handpeice with an obtuse angled head; is inserted into the power unit's straight handpeice and is used to gain access to posterior teeth and difficult areas
right-angle handpeice (RAHP) handpeice with its head set at a 90-degree angle is inserted and coonects into the power unit's handpeice; employed in general use throughout the oral cavity
prophy angle handpeice (PHP) small prophylaxis handpeice rotary angle with a 90-degree angle head; has a limited opening in the working end for polishing cups or brush placement
fiber optic handpeice specific slow- or high-speed handpiece that supplies a light source to the operative site for improved vision
rheostat a food petal or lever that is used to regulate the speed of the handpeice
air abrasion air-powered handpeice delivering abrasive aluminum oxide powder or sodium bicarbonate under force to clean or prepare tooth surfaces or remove some carious tissue
ultrasonic handpiece high-speed vibration scaling tips used for scaling and curettage purposes, sometimes called ultrasonic scaler
curing light handpiece hand-held device that focuses a light beam to cure or "set" specified materials
intraoral camera handpeice with a small camera situated in the head; used to transmit various views of the oral setting
electrosurgery handpiece combination of assorted metal tips that fit into a probe handle; these tips pass electrical currents that incise and coagulate the blood in a surgical procedure
laser handpiece photon handpiece that emits a precise light-energy wavelenght that is concentrated to preform specialized tasks; used in teeth whitening
caries detection scanner a non-invasive laser scan that detects early decay in occlusal areas
implant drilling unit lighted, digitally control drilling handpiece with sterile irrigation; used to smooth alveolar bone, drill operatice sites, and install implants
shank for a handpiece the end of the bur that is inserted into the handpiece
neck for a handpiece connecting area between the shank and the working end or head of the bur
working end or head for a handpiece end that cuts tissue or works on the tooth or material involved
dentated bur dented, depressed
truncated bur cut part off, lop off
friction-grip bur smooth-ended bur, held in the handpiece by the friction grip chunk
latch-type bur has grooved inserion bur end that hooks into the head of an RA handpiece
straight handpiece has a smooth, extended shaft that fits directly into the straight handpiece
mandrel a slim, metal holding device that fits into slow hand pieces and is used to smooth and cut
Joe Dandy a thick, carborundum disc
stone, wheel, discs abrasive or chemically treated discs, wheels, cups, and points with carious shapes that can be mounted permanently or glued on a shaft or placed on mandrels
grit used for smoothing at chairside or in the lab
diamond rotary instruments commonly called burs or points; used to cut, smooth, and reduce tissues; they follow the same numbering pattern and color coding as steel burs
bur block a tray device used to hold the small rotary instuments during use at the chair and while being sterilized; may be metallic or resin and have or not have a cover
operatory small treatment room equipped with dental appliances
dental chair chair appliance, usually electrically powered, that raises, lowers, and tilts to provide easy access and proper vision
operatory light viewing light for patient care; may be wall-mounted, on a floor stand, lowered from the ceiling, or attached to the chair unit
stools movable seats for the dental personnel
dental unit upright, stationary, or movable, table-style working appliance that provides handpiece power, aspiration, water, and air
cabinets mobile, floor, or wall-mounted storage cabinets with drawer space for supplies and equipment
radiographic units various configurations
diagnostic or auxiliary units include perio-pocket detectors, newly developed electronic diagnostic devices used to assist with a patient survey
disease pathological condition of the body, abnormal condition
symptoms perceptible change in the body or body fuctions
objective symptoms (signs) evidence observed by someone else
endema swelling
subjective symptoms are evidence of a disease as reported by the patient
odontalgia toothache
syndrome (running together) an assortment or signs and symptoms grouped together
pathology study of disease
etiology cause of the disease
diagnosis denoting name of disease
prognosis a prediction about the course of the disease
acute (sharp, severe) describes immediate sumptoms such as high fever and pain or distress
chronic (not acute, drawn out) describes a condition present over a long time, often without an endpoint, such as chronic fatigue and anemia
remission (lessening or abating) temporary or permanent cessation
epidemic (among people or widespread) a condition prevalent over a wide population, such as many cases of flu or typhoid in an area
pandemic (all people involved) a disease that is more widespread than an epidemic, occurring over a large geographical area and population someimes worldwide
endemic (in people) disease(s) occurring continuously in the same population or locality
exogenous (produced outside)refers to causes outside the body such as illnesses arising from trauma
endogenous (arising from within the cell or organism) refers to causes arising from within the body, such as infections, tumors, and congenital and metabolic abnormalities
congenital (present from birth) refers to conditions inherited from parents, such as cystic fibrosis
degenerative (breaking down) refers to conditions resulting from natural aging of the body, such as arthritis
opportunistic (taking advantage of) refers to diseases or infection occurring when body resistance is lowered, such as with fungal, bacterial, or viral infections
nosocomial (disease in caregiving) refers to diseases passed on from patient to patient in a health care setting, such as staphylococcal bacterial infections
pathogenic microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens
bacteria one-celled, plant-like microorganisms lacking chlorophyll
aerobic designates bacteria that require oxygen to live
facultative aerobes bacteria that can live in the presence of oxygen but do not require it
obligate or strict anaerobes bacteria that cannot live in the presence of oxygen
flagella (whips) small, whip-like hairs that provide movement for some bacteria
spore thick walled reproductive cell
endospore for a resting stage when unfavorable conditions exist
viruses tiny parasitic organisms that cause diseases such as HIV
Rickettsia smaller than bacteria but bigger than viruses, spread by lice or ticks
vectors carriers that transmit diseases
filamentous molds
unicellular yeasts
protozoa must live upon another organism called the host, cause malaria
saprophytes organisms living on decaying or dead organic matter such as tetanus bacillus (lock jaw)
nematodes small parasitic worms such as as threadworms
commensal (living together) microbes that live together on a host without harming it, such as mouth flora
bloodborne pathogens disease-producing microbes that are present in human blood
droplet infection airborne infection in which pathogens discharged from the mouth or nose by coughing or sneezing are carried through the air and settle on objects
indirect infection infection resulting from improper handling of materials
fomes inanimate substances that absorb and transmit infection, such as doorknobs and bedding
contact infection infection that is passed directly through intimate relationships- contact with saliva, blood, or mucous membranes
parenteral entry (injection) refers to piercing of the skin or mucous membrane; also called needle-stick
carrier infection exchange of disease by direct or indirect contact with an infected human or animal
vector-borne infection an infection that is transmitted by an organism such as a fly or mosquito
food, soil, or water infection infection passed along by microbes present in these media
biofilm containing bacteria cells that adhere to moist surfaces and form a protective slime that can carry pathogens or nematodes.
immunity resistance to organisms due to previous exposure
virulence (power) the number or concentration of pathological organisms
natural immunity inherited and permanent
natural acquired immunity obtained when a person is infected by a disease, produces antibodies, and then recovers from that disease
artificial acquired immunity obtained from inoculation or vaccination against a disease
passive acquired immunity results from reciving antibodies from another source, such as breast milk, or from injections of gamma globulin, antitoxins, or immune serum
passive natural immunity passes from mother to fetus congenitally or through antibodies in breast milk
immunocompromised having a weakened immune system, resulting from drugs, irradiation, disease such as AIDS, or malnutrition
inoculation injection of microorganisms, serum, or toxin into the body
vaccination inoculation with weakened or dead microbes
antigen substance that induces the body to form antibodies
antibody protein substance produced by the body in response to an antigen
vaccine solution of killed or weakened infectious agents injected to produce immunity
autogenous vaccine vaccine produced from a culture of bacteria taken from the patient who will receive the vaccine
attenuated diluted or reduced virulence of pathogenic microbes
asepsis free from germs
sanitation application of methods to promote a favorable germ-free state
disinfection application of chemicals to kill, reduce, or eliminate germs
sterilization the process of destroying all microorganisms
autoclave apparatus for sterilization by steam pressure
"flash" autoclave smaller autoclave with higher temperature setting to lessen time
dry heat sterilization oven apparatus used for a hot air bake at high temperature for a longer period of time
chemical vapor autoclave method using chemical vapor under pressure in place of water
molten metal ir glass bead heat devices holding superheated molten metal or small glass beads
germicidal gas gas chamber apparatus for items that cannot withstand heat; requires long exposure and ventilation time before use
chemical agents liquids containing chemicals that kill microbes and spores and require longer immersion time. some chemicals may be either disinfectants and/or sterilizers
indicator strips or commercial spore vials; placed in or on wrapped items during the sterilization susle to indicate the effectiveness of the sterilizing process
disinfection the application of chemicals to kill, reduce, or eliminate germs
disinfectant chemical that kills many microbes, but not spore-forming bacteria
antiseptic usually a diluted disinfectant that inhibits growth of microbes
bacteriostatic inhibiting or retarding bacterial growth
germicide substance that destroys some germs
holding solution disinfectant solution
biodegradable chemical or metabolic material that breaks down protein material
ultrasonic cleaner mechanical apparatus with a reservoir to contain a solution that cavitates
implodes bursts inwardly or bubbles off debris
barrier techniques drapes, covers, plastic instrument sleeves, and the like, to prevent contamination and help protect patients
SOP standard operating procedures for sanitation of operators and patients, including the training and use of proper handling and storing of dental equipment
standard precautions treating each case as if the patient has a serious disease including handling and sterilizing with each new use to precent contamination; called maintaining a sterile field
proper disposal techniques disposing of all contaminated items in a marked biohazard bag; laundry and other materials used in patient should be considered contaminated by splatter or aerosol matter
sharps disposal unit container used for collection and disposal of needles, broken glass, and sharp items
biohazard container labeled container for items contaminated with body fluids or life-threatening contaminates
hazardous waste container receptacle for used, unsanitary items
saturate-wipe-saturate disinfection cleaning of operative area
OSHA occupational saftey and health administration: issues and enforcesrestrictions and guidelines for infection control
CDC centers for disease control and prevention: sets regulations and issues suggestions for infection control
EPA Enviromental protection agency: regulates and approves materials, equipment, medical devices, and chemicals used in dental practices
FDA food and drug administration: regulates and approves marketing products and solutions used in infection control
OSAP organization for safety and asepsis procedures: national organization of health professionals; studies and makes suggestions for regulations and guidelines for infection control
radiant energy waves that are produced, charged, and emitted from a common center in the dental radiation tube
x-ray tube produces x-rays (Vacuum tube)
cathode (negative pole) electrode in the vacuum tube that serves as the electron source
filament (fine thread) tungsten coil in the cathode focusing cup that generates the electrons
anode (positive pole) the target for the electron barrage to convert the electron force into photons
focal spot target area where rays are projected to make the primary beam, or central beam; the smaller focal spot produces a better image
collimator (to align) a device used to regulate the beam's exit window of the tube to absorb weak radiation
inherent filtration all filtration devices that filter weak, longer-wavelength x-rays
added filtration filtration placed outside the tube head to meet safety standards
total filtration sum of inherent and added filtration, expressed in mm of aluminum equivalent
milliampere control and increase in milliamperage increases the amount of electrons available and darkens the radiograph
kilovolt power controls the force that attracts the electrons to the anode; helps to determine the penetrating power and the quality/energy of the radiation rays
exposure time duration of the intercal during which current will pass through the x-ray tube
target-film distance distance of the film surface from the source of radiation
target-object distance distance between the anode target and the object to be radiographed
film speed A to F speed; faster film requires less radiation exposure time for the patient
primary radiation central ray of radiation emitting from the tube head and PID
secondary radiation radiation given off from other matter that is exposed to the primary beam
scattered radiation radiation deflected from its path during its passage through matter; may be deflected or defused in all directions, becoming attenuated (weakened) or another form of secondary radiation
stray radiation also called leakage, any radiation other than the useful beam produced from the tube head
remnant radiation radiation rays that reach the film target after passing through the subject part being radiographed
sensitivity ability of x-rays to penetrate and possibly ionize
cumulative effect long-term outcome of radiation
latent period the time interval between the exposure and the effect or its detection
mutation effect abnormal growth or development as a result of radiation causing a genetic change
acute radiation exposure radiation occurring from a massice, short-term ionizing dose, such as accidental exposure or explosion of radiation material
chronic radiation exposure accumulated radiation effects from continual or frequent small exposures abosrbed over a period of time
roentgen (R) the basic unit of exposure to radiation
rad (radiation absorbed dose) the unit of absorbed radiation dose equal to 100 ergs per gram of tissue
rem (roentgen equivalent measure) the unit of ionizing radiation needed to produce the same biological effect as one roentgen of radiation
erythema dose (redness)radiation overdose that produces temporary redness of the skin
dosimeter (giving measure) radiation-monitoring device with ionizing chamber or a device to indicate exposure and measure accumulated doses of radiation
lead apron/thyrocervical collar patient apparel with lead protection for genetic cells in the torso and the thyroid glands in the cervical area
lead barriers, shields devices used by operators to block out scattered radiation
phantom practice manikin containing tooth and head structures to imitate actual condition
periapical film packet used for the intraoral periapical view of the entire tooth or teeth in given area along with adjacent tissues and oral structures
bitewing film packet film used to record the crown and interproximal views of both arches while in occlusion
occlusal film packet film that may be used intraorally or extraorally to expose large areas
extraoral films radiographs exposed outside the oral cavity
cephalometric (head, measure) also called headplates
cephalostat a device used to stabilize the patient's head in a plane parallel to the film and at right angles to the contral ray of the x-ray beam. used for large radiographs of the head
panoramic radiograph a special radiograph producing the entire dentition with surrounding structures on one film
intensifying screen a layer of fluorescent crystals or calcium tunstate within the cassette that gives off a bluish light when exposed to radiation
contrast variations in shades from black to white
density amount of film blackening associated with the percentage of light transmitted through a film
detail point-to-point delineation or veiw of tiny structures in radiograph image
definition outline sharpness and clarity of image exhibited on a radiograph
radiolucent (ray, shine) describes a radiograph that appears dark; or the ability of a substance to permit passage of x-rays, thereby cause the radiographic film to darken
radiopaque (ray, dark) the portion of the radiograph that appears light, or the ability of a substance to resist x-ray penetration, thereby causing a light area on the film
bisecting angle the central beam in directly perpendicular with an imagaginary bisecting line of the angle formed by the plane of the film and the long axis of the tooth
paralleling the film packet is placed parallel to the long axis of the tooth and at a right angle to the central beam
CCD (charged coupled device) a solid-state sensor that may or may not be wired to the computer work station, barrier-wrapped and inserted into a positioning device for placement and exposure in the mouth
PSP (photostimulable phosphor device) an indirect sensor storage plare that absorbs radiation to complete a latent image
indirect dental radiography digital image x-ray image already processed by the usual method, scanned by an adapter in the database; or a digital camera can racord a picture of the film and transfer the image to the database
electronic image processing operator's manipulation of the digital image, consisting of contrast, brightness, image reversal,embossing, and grayness to enhance, measure, compare, or obtain information
digital subtraction radiography digital comparison of the image to a previous radiatiograph, subtracting all that is the same and analyzing or comparing the remainder
sagittal plane also called midsaggital plane; imaginary vertical line bisecting the face into a right half and left half
ala tragus line imaginary line from the ala(wing) of the nose to the tragus(skin projection anterior to acoustic meatus) center of the ear
horizontal angulation direction of the central x-ray beam in a horizontal plane
vertical angulation direction of the central x-ray beam in an up or down position
negative angulation angulation achieved by positioning the PID upward
positive angulation angulation achieved by positioning the PID downward
zero angulation angulation achieved by positioning the PID parallel with the floor
film-holding instrument device used to place and retain the film during exposure
blue aming ring anterior
yellow aming ring posterior
red aming ring bitewinn
green aming ring endodontic
biteblock a device inserted between the teeth to hold the film during exposure
bite loop/tab paper tab or a celluloid circle placed around periapical film
film safe container a lead-lined container used to hold exposed films until processing; protects the film from exposure to scattered or secondary rays during exposure of films
full mouth survey (FMX) multiple exposures of the oral cavity showing crown and root area in a series of radiographic veiws
bitewing survery (BWX) two or four film exposures of posterior veiw to obserce the crowns of maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth
edentulous survey (without teeth) radiographic survey of a patient without teeth
radiograph processing is a procedure for bringing out the latent image on a film and making the exposure permanent
developing chemical process using the chemical elon to bring out contrast and another chemical, hydroquinone, to show contrast in film
accelerator soulution used to swell the film emulsion during the processing
activator solution used to aid other chemicals in the processing activity
replenisher soulution super-concentrated developing solution that is added to the developing tank to restore fluid levels
underdeveloping insufficient processing with weak chemicals or incorrect time or temperature that results in light, difficult-to-veiw films
overdeveloping overprocessing that results in radiographs that are too dark and difficult to interpret
rinsing water bath used to remove chemical liquids from films during solution exchanges
fixing chemical process that stops the developer action and "fixes" the image, making it permanently visible
hyopsulfite or hyposulfite of sodium chemical that removes exposed and unexposed silver grains from the film
drying procedure to dry dulms after the chemical and water baths
safelight special light or filtered light that can remain during the developing procedure
duplicating radiograph procedure utilizing a cabinet-like unit and spacial duplicating films to make a duplicate exposure of a processed radipgraph for purposes of insurance, referral, or records
mounting (carding) a procedure to arrange the processed radiographs in a cardboard, plastic, or stiff carrier to present a veiw of the oral cavity
horizontal window preset window in the mount, used to place posterior films
veritcal window preset window in the mount, used for placement of anterior films
bitewing window (interproximal window) used to place bitewing exposures
identification dot preset pressed or raised area on the surface of the film
veiw box a box or wall-mounted frame with fluorescent lights behind a frosted glass plate; used to veiw x-rays
elongation image of the tooth structure appearing longer than the actual size; caused by indufficient vertical angulation
foreshortening tooth structures appearing shorter than their actual anatomical size; caused by excessive vertical angulation
overlapping distortion of the film showing an overlap of the crowns of adjacent teeth superimposed on neighboring teeth; caused by improper horizontal angulation
cone cutting improper placement of the central beam, which produces a blank area or unexposed area on the film surface caused by lack of exposure to radiation
reticulation crackling of film emulsion caused by wide temperature differences between processing solutions (stained glass effect)
fog darkening of or blemish on film that may be caused by old film, old or contaminated solutions, faulty safelight, scattered radiation, or improper storage of films
penumbra poor definition or fuzzy outline of forms, caused by movement
herringbone effect fish-bone effect on the film surface resulting from improper placement of the film
prosthesis is replacement for a missing body part
fixed appliance one that is placed in the mouth and is not intended for removal
removable appliance one that is placed in and out of the mouth at the patient's will
implantology the science of dental implants
noble metals the valuable alloys; gold, palladium, and platinum
base metals chromium-cobalt, or chromium nickel, which may be used alone or in a mixture with noble alloys
parcelain (hard, translucent ceramic wear) shells, veneer covers, or facing fused to the surface of a metal crown to give the appearance of natural tooth surface
PFM porcelain fused to metal
composite resin material used for tooth-colored replacement
acrylic synthetic resin material used in fabrication of appliance parts, as coverings for the metal frameworks, or as natural tissue replacement
ceramic a hard brittle material produced from non-metallic substances fired at high temperatures; supplied in block shape for milling into crown and tooth forms
titanium corrosion-resistant, lightweight, strong bio-compatible metal used in dental implants and posts
hardness ability of a material to withstand penetration
tensile strength capability of a material to be stretched
elasticity ability of a material to be stretched and then resume its original shape
ductility ability of a material to be drawn or hammered out, as into a fine wire, without breaking
malleability ability of a material to be pressed or hammered out into various forms and shapes
elongation ability of a material to stretch before permanent deformation begins
inlay a solid casted or milled restoration involving some occlusal and proximal surfaces that is cemented into a tooth preparation
onlay a solid casted or milled restoration that covers some occlusal tooth cusp and side wall area that is cemented onto the prepared site
crown a fabricated, tooth-shaped cover replacement for a missing crown area that is cemented onto the remaining prepared crown surfaces
full crown cast metal, tooth-shaped cover that replaces the entire crown area
jacket crown thin, preformed, metal shield used to cover a large area of anterior crowns
dental crown full crown cover with dowel pin extending into the root canal of a pulpless tooth, usually positioned on anterior teeth
three-quarter crown similar to full crown, covering all of the crown except the facial surface of the tooth that remains intact
porcelain-fused-to-gold (PFM) crown that has a complete capping of metal base with fused porcelain
direct veneer placed and cured directly on the tooth surface to build up the area or replace missing tooth structure
indirect veneer tooth material is prepared in the lab and later cemented onto the tooth structure
bridge is a prosthesis used to replace one or more teeth
fixed bridge cemented into the oral cavity and not removed by the patient
maryland bridge replaces anterior or posterior tooth and is cemented directly to the adjacent or abutting teeth (resin-bonded bridge)
cantilever bridge bridge with unsupported end, usually saddled
pontic artificial tooth part of the bridge that replaces the missing tooth and restores function to the bite
abutment natural tooth or teeth that are prepared to hold or support the retaining part of the bridgework in position
adjacent (nearby or adjoining) teeth: may be included in units if they are involved in the bridge area
complete denture (removable appliance composed of artificial teeth set in an acrylic base) full denture designed to replace the entire dentition of an upper or lower arch
partial denture removable appliance, usually composed of framework, artificial teeth, and acrylic material; replaces one or more teeth in an arch
immediate denture denture prosthesis that is placed into the mouth at the time the natural teeth are surgically removed
overdenture prosthetic denture that is prepared to fit and be secured upon implant posts or prepared retained roots
framework metal skeleton or spine onto which a removable prosthesis is constructed
saddle the part of the removable prothesis that strides or saddles the gingival crest; used to balance the prosthesis, and serves as a base for placement of artificial teeth
rests small extensions of removable prosthesis made to fit or sit atop the adjoinging teeth
clasp extension of partial framework that grasps the adjoinging teeth to provide support and retention of the prosthesis
retainer the part of the appliance that joings with the abutting, natural tooth to support the appliance, like the pillar holding the span of a bridge over water
connector (device used to unite or attach two or more parts together) used to connect quadreants of a partial denture or connect and support an overdenture
stress breaker a connector applied in stress-bearing areas to provide a safe area for breakage
artificial teeth anatomical sustitutes for natural teeth; made of porcelain or acrylic material in various shades and shapes, called molds
denture base acrylic part of the denture prosthesis that substitutes for the gingival tissue
flange (flanj) projecting rim or lower edge of prosthesis
post dam posterior edge of the maxillary denture; helps to maintain the denture and suction
elastomeric having properties similar to rubber
hydrocolloid (hydro-water; colloid-suspension of material) an agar-like material that can change from one form to another
reversible hydrocolloid impression material that can change from a solid or gel state to a liquid form and back again
thermoplastic (thermo-heat; plastic-moveable) quality of a material that changes from a rigid to plastic or movable form as a result of application of heat
irreversible hydrocolloid quality that, once chamically set or in gel form, cannot be reversed or used again
imbibition swelling from absorption of water
rubber bases common impression materials
extruder gun calibrated mixing dispenser
catalyst substance that speeds up a chemical reaction
compound a non-elastic impression material that may be used in edentulous impressions
edentulous without teeth
alveolectomy surgical removal of alveolar bone crests, may be required to provide smooth alveolar ridge for denture seating
alveoplasty surgical reshaping or contouring of alveolar bone
extraction surgical removal of teeth may be necessary
template guide or pattern
coping (coverings) metal cover placed over the remaining natural tooth surfaces to provide attachments for overdentures
reduction (reducing or lessening in size) removal of tooth decay and surfaces to receive the appliance
chamfer (tapered margin at tooth cervix) preparation for crown placement
shoulder (cut gingival margin edge) preparation to provide junction of the crown and tooth
bevel (slanted edge) tooth preparation for seating and holding a crown
core buildup use of synthetic material to enlarge tooth core area to provide support for an artificial crown and to protect the pulpal tissues
post placement addition of a metal retention post to teeth that have had pulp removal and root canal enlargement, to aid in stability and strength
undercut removal of tooth structure near the gingival edge to provide a seat or placement for the extending edge of the appliance
retraction cord chemically treated cord placed in the gingival sulcus to obtain chemical or physical shrinking of the gingiva
impregnated saturated with chemicals
bite registration impression of the teeth while in occlusion
open bite patient bites into the impression material
closed bite the material is injected and expressed around the desired teeth while they are in occlusion
opposing arch impressions of the occlusal surfaces of both arches are taken in the same procedure
work order written directions from the dentist to the laboratory completing the case; the impressions, bite registration, and orders are sent together
temporary or provisional coverage temporary protection for the prepared tooth while laboratory work is being completed
seating placement and fitting of appliance for try-in and final cementation
condylar inclination (pertaining to the condyle; tendency, bending, bias) observation of bite relationship and TMJ involvement
centric (central, center) occuring when the condyle rests in the temporal bone buring biting, resting, and mouth movements
protusion (projecting or thrust forward) measurement with the mandible thrust forward, with the lower jaw out
retrusion (forcing backward) measurement with the mandible drawn backward
lateral excursion (side; movement) measurement with side-to-side movement of the mandible
appearance indicators notations of the smile line and the length of the cuspid point
implant (insertion of object) surgical insertion of implant posts or prepared frame to provide stabilization
root form implant-endosseous (within the alveolar bone) screw-type device that is screwed or cemented into the mandibular bone
plate form implant used for the narrow jaw bone
subperiosteal (under the gingival and alveolar tissues) implant plate or frame placed under the periodontium and stabilized on the mandibular bone
transosteal (through the mandibular bone) larger plate stabilized on the lower border of the mandibular bone with posts extending through the gingiva
osseointegration (osseo-bone; integrate-bonding) the process of appliances bonding with bone tissue in order to obtain stability
endodontia within the tooth
endodontics the branch of dentistry concerned with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases of the dental pulp and its surrounding tissues
periradicular peri-around; radi-root
endodontist dental specialist who is limited to and performing the practice of endodontics
pulpitis inflamed pulpal condition
objective signs condition observed by someone other than the patient
hyperextension (over movement) a condition in which the tooth arises out of the socket, or a noticeable, unpleasant odor
putrefaction (decaying animal matter) unpleasant odor
subjective symptoms conditions as described by the patient
hypersensitivity over sensitive
pulpalgia inner tooth tissue pain
palpation application of finger pressure to body tissues
percussion (tapping of body tissue, tooth) usually done by tapping a dental mirror handle on an affected tooth and comparing the sensation to tapping on a healthy or control tooth
mobility movement of a tooth in its socket during outside force or application of pressure
transillumination (passage of light through object/tissue) a light refraction test to receal fractured tooth tissue
thermal pulp sensitivity test with reaction to application of heat and/or cold to tooth surface
anesthesia numbing the specific root or nerve ending to dissipate pain
direct dentin stimulation scratching the exposed dentin with and explorer
electric pulp testing applying an electrical surrent on the enamel surface of the rooth to register the tooth;s pulpal sensitivity and presence of irritability
periodontitis inflammation around the tooth
abscess (local pus infection) and infection that may be an acute or chronic apical abscess
suppurative producing or generating pus
pericementitis inflammation and necrosis of alveoli of the tooth
cyst abnormal, closely walled fluid or exudates-filled sac in or around periapical tissues
cellulitis inflammation of cellular or connective tissue
osteomyelitis an inflammation of cellular or connective tissues
pulpotomy partial excision of the dental pulp
pulpectomy surgical removal of pulp from the tooth, also known as root canal treatment (RCT)
apicoectomy surgical amputation of a root apex
isolation accomplished to provide saftey and to assure an aseptic site
extirpation (to root out) removing the pulpal tissue after the pulpal opening
debridement (removal of foreign or decayed matter) removing necrotic pulpal tissue and cleaning out the area
irrigation and cleansing using chemicals and instruments to remoce tissue dust and material matter from the pulp and pulp canals
obturation (to close or stop up) filling and closing the canal area
retrograde (backward step) process of filling the canal begining from the apex of tooth to the pulp
restoration returning the tooth to normal function and purpose
dental dam material thin sheet of latex or non-latex rubber
dental dam frame device used to hold material in place
dental dam punch device used to place selected hold in the dam material for isolating a tooth or teeth
dental dam forceps hand device used to transport and place clamps or retainers around the selected tooth
rubber dam stamp and pad marking stamper and pad devices used to indicate alignment spots for puncturing the material with the punch
dental dam clamp retaining device used to hold the material around the tooth
dental dam ligature material used to hold and secure the dam material in the mouth
broach a thin, barbed, wire instrument, inserted into the root canal to ensnare and remove the pulp tissue and any natural or placed matter, such as paper points or cotton pellets
reamer a thin, twisted, sharp-edged instrument inserted into the canal and rotated clockwise to enlarge and taper the root canal
file a thin, rough-edged, instrument used to plane and smooth pulpal walls
k-file has twisted edges and is used to enlarge as well as too smooth walls
hedstrom file cone-shaped, twisted-edge instrument used for enlarging and smoothing
flex file stainless steel or nickel titanium alloy file that is stronger and provides more flexibility; used in narrow curved canals
pesso reamer thicker, engine driven, reamer with larger and longer parallel cutting edges for use in canal openings
gates-glidden drills engine-driven, latch-type burs with flame-shaped tip; used to provide an opening and access
paper points small, narrow, absorbent, paper tips that may be inserted into the obturated canal; used to dry the prep site or to carry medication to the area
stopper a small piece of elastic band or commercial plug that is moved up or down the shaft of the endo instrument; used to mark and indicate the lenght of penetration
rotary burs aand stones friction grip burs with diamond or carbide tips used to gain access through restorations and crowns
filling instruments used for filling canals are finger style for more curved canals
root canal (endodontic) spreader longer shank with pointed nib; used to carry and insert cement or filling material
root canal plugger longer-shanked with a flat tipped nib; used to condense and adapt the canal filling material
root canal condenser handled, long-tip instrument that may be heated and used to condense gutta-percha to the canal walls
lentulo spiral drill thin, twisted wire, latch-type rotary instrument used to spread calcium hydroxide or cement into the canal
apex locator machines are used to determine the proximity of the test file to the root apex and relate the information to PC board screen during preparation of the canal
heat carrier machines provide adjustable heat to soften, deliver, and condense guttapercha to the canal
electric endodontic handpieces permit use of instruments at slow speeds for finger instrumentation
luer-loc syringe a barrel-type syringe with piston force plunger, used to inject fluids into the cavity
gutta-percha points tapered points made of a thermoplastic compound; used to fill the root canal
silver points tapered silver points comparable in size to files and reamers; used to fill canals
cement pastes and fillers zinc oxide eugenol mixes and commercial materials; used to cement points in canal
chelator chemical ion softener
desiccant (dry up; remove) methanol or ethanol alcohol, used to dry the area or clear away other chemical traces
medicament (medicine or remedy) used for antimicrobial actions, to prevent pain, and to neutralize the pupl area
curettage (scraping of a cavity) scraping of the apical area; may be necessary to remove necrotic tissues
apicoectomy a procedure that may be necessary to remove the root apex, particularly where there is a radicular cyst involvement of the affected tooth; also called root end resection
root amputation (surgical removal of a root) separating and removing molar roots of an affected tooth at the junction into the crown
root hemisection (cutting tissue or organ in half) surgical division of a multi-rooted tooth that may be performed in a lengthwise manner
bicuspidization surgical division of a tooth retaining both sides
traumatized (wounded) teeth, with a cariety of pulp injuries
luxation (dislocation) tooth movement
concussion luxation (shaken violently) tooth loosened as a result of a blow; usually recovery occurs with minimal attention
subluxation (under displacement) tooth partially dislocated; may evidence bleeding but require only minor attention
lateral luxation tooth may be partially displaced with the root apex tilted forward
extruded luxation (pushed out of normal position) tooth may be forced partially out of its socket
avulsion replantation (forced or torn away) teeth that have been accidentally lost; may undergo RCT at this time or at a future appointment
fracture breakage; may be a broken cusp, broken crown, broken root, or split tooth
replantation replacing an avulsed tooth in its tooth socket
transplantation (across; plant) transfer of a tooth from one alveolar socket to another
autogenous transplantation (self; origin) moving a tooth from one position in the oral cavity to another area in the same cavity
homogeneous transplantation (same origin) transferring and inserting a tooth from one patient to another
heterogenous transplantation (other origin) transfer from one species to another, not yet a feasible practice
implantation (into place) placing titanium metal extensions into the tooth root
intracanal bleaching heating or photo-oxidizing with UV rays may help to lighten the tooth color
oral maxillofacial surgeon a dentist who has completed additional oral surgical studies of two or three years
exodontia extraction of a tooth
forceps (pincers for seizing, holding, or extracting) instrument made for maxillary or mandibular use; used for tooth extraction
scalpel a small, surgical knife that is used to cut open or excise tissue from a surgical area
bone file heavier and thicker than the file used on tooth and restoration surfaces
elevators device used to raise the tooth; of three types as used in oral surgery
periosteal (concerning the periosteum) used to loosen the periosteum tissue from bone, or detach the tissue around the cervix of the tooth and retract tissue in the surgical site
periosteotome cutting tissue around bone
exolever (device to raise or elevate) used to elecat or luxate a tooth from its natural socket
apical (pertaining to apex or tip) used to elevate or pick out remains of a fractured root tip
hemostat (device or drug used to arrest blood flow) scissor-style device with a locking joint and serrated beaks; used to clamp off or hold onto and transfer
needle holder similar to a hemostat except that the nose of the instrument is rounded and blunted with serrated criss-crossed edges inside its beaks to assist with holding a needle
scissors carious specialized scissors used in oral surgery
tissue scissors longer-handled scissors with a serrated blade edge that is used to grasp and hold the tissue during cutting
suture scissors smaller scissors with one curved, half-moon blade that is inserted under the suture thread during cutting
bandage scissors scissors used to cut materials and dressings during surgery; usually have one longer, blunted blade tip to insert under material
rongeurs (bone cutting) grasp-handled instrument similar to forceps; used to snip off bony edges and rough areas
aspirating tips suction tips with longer handles and narrower tip openings; used to aspirate sockets, deeper throat areas, and surgical sites
chisel device that is longer, thicker, and heavier than tooth chisels; used to chip away bone and to apply force enough to break inpacted molar teeth
mallet (surgical hammer) device used to apply pressure to chisels
curette hand instrument with a spoon-shaped face that is inserted in the socket or surgical site to scrape out infection and debris
retractor draw back
tissue retractor may be hemostat-type device with notched tips to hold tissue or claw like blade with holding tips; used to retract and hold tissue during surgical procedures
cheek retractor may be bent wire-shapped device or flat, curved handles used to scoop and hold cheek tissue
tongue retractor scissor-type instrument with longer shaft and padded or serrated edges; used to grasp and hold the tongue
mouth prop used to spread the jaws apart while the patient is asleep during surgery
surgical bur similar to dental burs; used to remove bone
horizontal impaction the tooth is horizontally tilted; may be leaning parallel to the floor at various angles
veritcal impaction tooth is in upright position but in close proximity to or under the crown of a nearby tooth
distoangular impaction crown of the tooth is slanted toward the distal surface and covered by tissue and/or bone
mesioangular impaction crown of the tooth is mesially tilted and covered by tissue and/or bone
transverse impaction tooth is situated sideways to the adjacent teeth and occlusal plane, and is covered by tissue and/or bone
alveolectomy the removal or two or more teeth during one procedure, the wearing away of the alveolar bone crests to prepare for dentures
dry socket loss of the natural clotting
gingivectomy surgical excision of unattached gingival tissue
gingivoplasty surgical recountour of gingival tissues
periodontal flap surgery surgical excision and removal of pocket or tissue extensions
frenectomy (surgical removal or resectioning of a frenum) surgery that may be performed on the maxillary labial
pericoronitis gingival irritation and infection
diastema a space between two teeth
ankyloglossia tongue tied
incision and drainage procedure preformed for a periodontal abcess; incision made into the affected area and an opening is obtained to remove and drain infected matter
malady disease or disorder
incision biopsy removing a wedge-shaped section of affected tissue along with some normal adjacent tissue
excision biopsy removing the entire lesion of affected tissue with some underlying normal tissue
exfoliative biopsy scraping with glass slide or tongue depressor to collect tissue cells for microscopic study
malignant tumor that is harmful or getting worse
benign tumor not considered life threatening
leukoplakia formation of white patches on mucous membrane of oral cavity that cannot be scraped off and have the potential for milignancy
fibroma benign, fibrous, encapsulated tumor of connective tissue
papilloma benign epithelial tumor of skin or mucous membrane
hemangioma benign tumor of dilated blood vessels
granuloma grandular tumor usually occurring with other diseases
melanoma malignant, pigmented mole or tumor
basal or squamous cell carcinoma malignant growth of epithelial cells
osteoplasty forming bones
alveolectomy usually performed to remove alveolar bone crests remaining after tooth ectraction in preparation for a smooth bone ridge for denture wear
apicoectomy usually requires opening of the periodontium, including some alveolar bone, and exposure with removal of the root apex
exostosis (bony outgrowth) removing overgrowths and smoothing in preparation for dentures
torus (rounded elevation) an excessive bone growth
mandibularis concerning the mandible
palatinus in the palate
cysts abnormal closed walled sac present in or around tissue
dentigerous cystic sac containing teeth
radicular cyst located alongside or at the apex of a tooth root
ranula cystic tumor found on underside of the tongue or in the sublingual or submaxillary ducts
closed fracture reduction repair with interoral fixation, tooth wiring, or ligation methods in which the teeth are "wired together" in proper alignment awaiting bone healing
open fracture reduction a more complicated procedure involving osteotomy and rigid fixation
genioplasty plastic surgery of the chin or sheek
macrogenia large or excessive chin
microgenia undersized chin
lateral excessive/deficient excessive bone in one direction and deficient bone in another
asymmetrical lack of balance of size and shape on opposite sides
pseudomactogenia excess of soft tissue presenting a chin with the look of abnormal size
witch's chin soft tissue drooping
ptosis drooping or sagging of an organ
osteotomy (bone incision) surgical movement of bone
osteoplasty (to form bones) removal of bone
orthognathic surgery surgical manipulation of the facial skeleton to restore facial esthetics and proper function to a congenital, developmental, or trauma-affected patient
ridge augmentation use of bone grafs to build or correct and underdeveloped or missing ridge
arthrotomy (cutting into a joint) reconstruction and alignment of the mandible for TMJ disorders
retrusive position with mandible backward
protrusive position with mandible forward
lateral position to the side: mesiolateral is toward center of face, distolateral is toward outside of face
computerized madibular scan (CMS) 3-D tracking device to record functional movement of the jaw during opening, closing, chewing, and swallowing
electyromyograph (EMG) surface electrodes instrument to determine muscle activity during function
electrosonograph (ESG) recording of sounds during opening and closing of the jaw
CT cat scan; uses x-ray images taken at different angles and computerized into a cross section of anatomical features
crepitus grinding
hemiarthroplasty surgical repair of a joint with a partial joint implant reconstruction
alloplastic reconstruction rebuilding of the joint using manmade materials
autogenous reconstruction rebuilding of the joint using organic material
total joint reconstruction surgical intervention and use of artificial prostheses for the condyle, disc, and fossa of the temporal bone
revision surgery surgical correction of an area that has been operated upon previously, occurring when further degeneration happens, when previous implants have failed, or when going from a partial joint implant to a total implant
cleft lip tissue fissure or incomplete juncture of maxillary lip tissues
cleft palate congenital fissure in roof of mouth with an opening into the nasal cavity
cleft tongue bifid or split tongue; usually split at the tip
endosteal placement within the bone
subperiosteal (beneath the periosteum and placed onto the bone) usually a cast framework implant with protruding pegs that is placed over the bone and under the periosteum
transosteal (through the mandibular bone) anchor implants that are placed all the way through the mandible
endodontic (within the tooth) titanium post placed in the apex of an endodontically treated tooth to improve the crown-root length ratio
titanium has high strength; oxidizes readily on cantact with tissue fluid and has a minimum amount of corrosion
ceramic is biocompatible but is not used in stressful areas
polymers and composites in the research stage, may be used as abutments in partially edentulous mouth
stainless steel and cobalt-chromium alloys older but less used metal materials
cobalt-chromium-molybdenum implant material used in prosthesis construction for TMJ replacement
orthodontia the study of dealing with the prevention and correction of abnormally positioned or misaligned teeth
orthodontist concerned with the causes and treatment of malocclusion
centric relation the most retruded position of the mandibular condyle into the glenoid fossa (biting on the back teeth)
neutroclusion condition in which the anteroposterior occlusal positions of the teeth or the mesiodistal positions are normal but other malocclusion or positioning of the individual teeth occurs
distoclusion condition in which the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxiallary first molar is anterior to the buccal groove of the mandibular first molar, resulting in an appearance of a retruded mandible
mesioclusion condition in which the mesiobuccal cusp of the maxillary first molar occludes in the interdental space of the mandibular permanent first molar's distal cusp and the mesial cusp of the mandibular permanent second molar (protruded mandible)
supernumerary or ectopic (out of place) eruption of teeth
open bite anterior teeth do not contact with each other
overjet also known as horizontal overbite, increased horizontal distance between the incisal edges of maxillary and mandibular central incisors
vertical overbite excessive amount of overlap of maxillary and mandibular contral incisors when they are in occlusion
crossbite midsagittal alignment between central incisors not in agreement
underjet maxillary incisors lingual to mandibular incisors
end to end edges of maxillary and mandibular incisors meeting each other
preventive orthodontics action taken to preserve the integrity of a normal developing occlusion by protection current conditions or preventing situations that would interfere with growth
myotherapeutic muscle healing treatment
interceptive orthodontics procedures taken to lessen the severity of any existing malfunctions or problems from genetic or enviromental factors
corrective orthodontics procedures taken to reduce or eliminate malocclusion
rotation (turn around on an axis) altering the position of a tooth around its long axis
translation bodily tooth movement; a change of teeth to alternate positions
tipping change of tooth position to a more upright direction
intrusion movement of the tooth into the alveolus
extrusion movement of the tooth out of the alveolus
torque movement of the root without movement of the crown
banding placing metal band around entire selective tooth or teeth
direct bonding cementing stainless steel or golden metal brackets
viazis a triangular bracket
damon self-ligating sustem bracket
invisalign braces strong plastic custom trays used in mild malocclusion cases
lingual braces braces that are placed on the tongue side of the teeth
accelerated osteogenic orthodontic treatment surgical orthodontic team approach that involves incising the gingiva to expose the alveolar bone, where a surgical drill is used to place holes to weaken and demineralize the bone
adjunctive orthodontics procedures taken to facilitate other dental procedures that are necessary to correct or restore function
cephalometric radiographs (measurement of the head) are used for evaluation of dentofacial development in tracings for future growth patterns and directions
bands stainless steel circles or rings that are sized and cemented around a tooth
bracket (support) a metal or clear resin holding device used to support and stabilize the archwire in the mouth
soldered joining of two metals
DB direct bonded brackets
archwire horeshoe-shaped stainless steel or nickel titanium wire that may be round, rectangular, or square and removable or fixed
buccal tubes support devices soldered on bands into which headgear and archwires are inserted
button, cleats, hooks, eyelets devices used for support and holding power devices, elastics, and wires
ligature (binder or tie off) thin, stainless steel wires ised to tie on or attachwires and any necessary attachments
elastics sized latex circles providing various pull forces, or elastomeric ties for holding
auxiliary springs noble metal or stainless steel attachement to apply directional force
separators (device to set aside) brass wire, steel spreings, or elastomeric materials placed between the teeth to obtain space before placing the bands
headgear device composed of facebow and traction; is used to apply external force
facebow stainless steel external archbow device that is inserted into the fixed molar tubes on the maxillary first molars
traction device fitted, expandanle device to be hooked onto a facebow after placement on the head
cervical device circles the patient's neck and attaches to facebow to pull in a parallel position to retract teeth
high-pull device fits on top of the patient's head and hooks in a downward position, perpendicular to occlusion, to retract anterior teeth and control maxillary growth
combination high-pull and cervical device traction combining both forces
chin device placed on the chin, incorporates high-pull and cervical forces and is used to control mandible growth
aligner and invisalign system of computer-imaged and computer-generated clear plastic overlay trays used with milder cases of misaligned teeth
activator appliance designed to guide, change, or alter facial and jaw functions for a more favorable occlusion position
Hawley appliance removable, customized, acrylic and wire appliance designed to maintain newly acquired tooth positions
stev plate maxillary bite plane covering incisal edges of maxillary incisors; may be used in conjunction with headgear or for retention of the bite
crozat appliance removable appliance made of precious alloy with body wires, lingual arms, and a high labial archwire (maxillary)
lingual retainer mandibular lingual bar with cuspid-to-cuspid cemented unions, to maintain lower incisors in position
orthodontic tooth positioner customized mouth device constructed of soft acrylic or rubberized material surrounding the crowns of all the teeth in both jaws
palatal expanders known as RPE (rapid palatal expanders), a fixed appliance cemented to the maxillary molar teeth with a spring insert in the palate area
fixed space maintainer custom-constructed appliance attached to the remaining teeth to hold a tooth pattern or to maintain space from premature loss of tooth
oral shield device that fits into the vestibule space between the teeth and the lips
mouthguard though not considered a treatment appliance, protects the tooth position while the parient is involved in sport activities
dental appliances specialized mouth appliances for health disorders such as sleep apnea, thumb sucking, nail biters, and tongue thrusters
band-remover pliers used to remove bands from teeth
bird-beak pliers used to bend and shape appliance wires
loop-forming pliers used to form and shape loops in wires
howe pliers used to make archwire adjustment
three-prong pliers used to close or adjust clasps
contouring pliers used to contour bands for concave or convex tilt
ligature-tying pliers used to tie or bind off ligature wires and to place elastics
arch-forming pliers used for bending or holding dimensional wires
stress and tension guage narrow, hand-held instrument with interior marked sliding scale
band seater rounded, serrated end used to "seat" band onto tooth
ligature tucker straight-handled instrument with claw-like end that is used to guide ligatures and assist with the bending of cut wire edges
bracket tweezers reverse-action, small-ended tweezers used to place direct-bond brackets
ligature cutter used to cut ligature wire, intraorally or extraorally
pin and fine wire cutter used to cut or snip off ends of tied ligature wires
weingart utility plier used for placing archwires
anterior band slitter used to shear upper and lower bands
distal end cutter used to cut and hold arch wire that was inserted into the buccal tube
band pusher used to push and seat bands onto the teeth
ligature director used to direct and place ligature wires
scaler hand instrument used to remove sxcess cement from bands, and to direct wires, bands, and elastics into place
direct-bonding bracket holder used to hold DB's in position during placement
edgewise pliers used to hold or adjust archwires
hemostat scissor-like clamps, straight and curved; used to carry or hold small objects
boone gauge measuring device used to establish the height of the orthodontic bands
bitestick plastic- or metal-handled instrument with projecting serrated steel area that is used to help "seat" posterior bands
protractor triangular premarked form used to make cephalometric tracing
periodontology is the field of dentistry that deals with the treatment of disease of the tissues around the teeth
attached gingiva the portion that is firm, dense, stippled,and bound to the underlying periosteum, tooth, and bone
keratinized hard tissue
marginal gingiva the portion that is unattached to underlying tissues and helps to form the sides of the gingival crevice
sulcus groove
papillary gingiva the part of the marginal gingiva that occupies the interproximal spaces
periodontal ligaments bundles of fibers that support and retain the tooth in the socket
cementum outer, hard surface convering of the root section of the tooth
alveolar bone process compact bone that forms the tooth socket
cribriform sieve-like plate
laminadura lining, thin layer
alveolar crest fibers found at the cementoenamel junction; help to retain the tooth in its socket and protect the deeper fibers
horizontal fibers connect te alveolar bone to the upper part of the root and assist with control of lateral movement
oblique fibers attach the alveolar socket to the majority of the root cementum and assist in resisting the axial forces
apical fiber bundles running from the apex of the tooth to the alveolar bone, fibers that help to prevent tipping and dislocation, as well as protect nerve and blood supply to the tooth
interradicular fiber bundles are present in multirooted teeth, extending apically from the tooth furcation; help the tooth resist tipping, turning, and dislocation
plaque plate or buildup
erythema the gingica is red and appears inflamed
edema overgrown tissue
hyperplasia excessive number of tissue cells
hypertrophy excessive cellular growth
stippling spotting
exudate passing out of pus
dental plaque involvement tissues react to irritants
non-dental plaque lesions these are of specific bacterial, viral, fungal, or genetic origin
allergies the patient may be allergic to dental restorative materials, reactions to foods, additives, and so forth
traumatic lesions, injury the patient may have been subjected to an external force or have been injured in some way
chronic periodontitis this is the most common type of slowly progressive periodontal disease
aggressive periodontitis a rapidly progressive disease
refractory periodontitis periodontitis progresses in spite of excellent patient compliance
desquamative painful, red tissues that are shedding or scaling off
periodontitis as manifetation of systemic disease periodontal inflammatory reactions occur as a result of diseases and genetic disorders
necrotizing periodontal diseases rapid gingival tissue distruction with bacterial invasion of connective tissue may be a manifestation of systemic disease
necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis with a foul odor and loss of interdental papilla, sometimes called "trench mouth"
necrotizing ulcerative periodontitis with bone pain and rapid bone loss
periodontitis associated with endodontic lesions this simple classification was added to distinguish between periodontitis and periodontitis with endodontic inflammation involvement
developmental or acquired deformities and conditions deformities appear around teeth, edentulous ridges, and form trauma
medical history questions regarding diabetes, pregnancy, smoking, hypersension, didication, substance abuse, and so forth
dental history chief complaint, past dental records, and radiographs; complete assessment of restoration condition, toth position, mobility
extraoral structure assessment exam of oral mucosa, muscles of mastication, lips, floor of mouth, tongue, palate, salicary glands, and the oropharynx area
periodontal probing depths charting and recording finding of probe depths, assessing plaque and calculus presence, soft tissue, and implant conditions
assessing introoral findings exam for toried, abnormal frenum placement and size, furcation involvement
periodontal probe a round or flat-bladed hand instument marked in milimeter increments
periodontal debridement removing supragingival and sibgingival plaque, calculus, stain, and irritants through tooth-crown and root-surface scaling and root planing
tooth and surface polishing polishing surfaces to remove accumulated stains on the tooth surfaces
extrinsic outer
endotoxins absorbed pathogens
selective polishing term applied to the polishing of chosen tooth sites or areas
prophylaxis term applied to the combination of debridement and tooth polishing
patient education customized instruction in oral hygiene, the care of teeth and gingival tissue
antimicrobal against small life
correction of plaque retention factors dental intervention in existing conditions of open contacts, overcrowding, open or overhanging restoration margins, narrow embrasures, and ill-fitting appliances
monitoring of patient determination of progress and reevalutaion of patient condition and efforts
mucogingival excision used to correct defects in shape, position, or amount of gingiva around the tooth
gingivectomy excision of gum tissue area
gingivoplasty surgical contour of gingival tissue
periodontal flap surgery separating a loosened section of tissue from the adjacent tissues to enable elimination of deposits and contouring of alveolar bone
envelope flap no vertical incision with the mucoperiosteal flap retracted from a horizontal incision line
mucoperiosteal mucosal tissue flap including the periosteum, reflected from the bone
partial-thickness flap surgical flap including mucosa and connective tissue but no periosteum
pedicle flap tissue flap with lateral incisions
positioned flap flap that is moved to a new position, apically, laterally, or coronally
repositioned flap surgical flap replaced in its original position
sliding flap pedicle flap re-dituated in a new position
osseous surgery tissue surgery with alteration in bony support of the teeth
re-entry second-stage surgical procedure to enhance or improve conditions from a previous surgical procedure
vestubuloplasty surgical alteration of gingival mucous membrane in vestibule of the mouth
ENAP (excisional new attachment procedure) removal of chronically inflamed soft tissue to permit formation of new tissue attachment
guided tissue regeneration placement of a semipermeable membrane beneath the flap
bone graphs involve transplants to restore bone loss from periodontal disease
allograft human bone graft from someone other than the patient
autograft bone graft from another site in the same patient
xenograft graft taken from another species (experimental)
allogenic addition of synthetic material to repair or build up bone
endosteal implants of various designs placed within the bone
subperiosteal implant placement beneath the periosteum and onto the bone
transosteal implant placement through the bone
endodontic implant set within the apex of the root
periodontal probe used to measure the depth of the periodontal pocket by determining the amount of gingival tissue attachment
explorer instrument with a longer, tapered, thin wire tip to determine claculus formation, restoration overhangs
scaler instrument with a sharpened blade to remove supragingival claculus deposits and stains
hoe instrument with a long sank and hoe-like tip, used to remove heavy or thick supragingival calsulus in posterior areas
chisel instrument with longer shaft and chisel-bladed tip, used to break off and remove heavy calculus in the anterior region
curette instrument with longer shank and working end with a rounded toe and back to access and remove subgingival deposits
ultrasonic and sonic instrument tip inserted into the ultrasonic handle
periodontal pocket marker set of instruments similar to tweezers with a sharp point on one tip for insertion into the depth of the pocket and then compressed to make puncture marks indication pocket depth
periodontal knives used to make incisions to remove tissue or to obtain flap design
electrosurgery tips/unit apparatus using electrical current to incise tissue and coagulate blood at the same time
laser tip/unit apparatus delivering energy in light form at different wavelengths
pedodontist treats the child patient until the premolars erupt or the beginning of the teen years
deciduous teeth baby teeth
caries dental decay
epulis fibrous, sarcomatous tumor
abscess local collection of pus
cellulites inflammation in cellular or connective tissue
anodontia absence of teeth, usually of genetic origin
macrodontia abnormally large teeth
hyperdontia excess number of supernumerary teeth
hypodontia congenital absence of teeth
enamel hypoplasia underdevelopment of enamel tissue
dentinogenesis imperfecta genetic defect resulting in incomplete or improper development of dentin tissue
amelogenesis imperfecta imcomplete or improper development of enamel tissue
aplasia failure of an organ or body part to develop
dens in dente tooth within a tooth
germinate (sprout) attempted division of a single tooth
fusion of teeth union of two, independently developing primary or secondary teeth
early tooth exfoliation (shedding or falling off) tooth loss resulting in the shifting of teeth and loss of tooth position
ankylosis stiff joint; retention of deciduous tooth
intrinsic (on the inside)internal discoloration of teeth resulting from diet, medication, or excessive fluoride intake during tooth development
odontoma (tumor of a tooth or dental tissue) abnormal cell proliferation of cells
macroglossia (large tongue) enlarged tongue
micrognathia abnormally small jaw; undersized mandible
cherubism a genetic disorder resulting in enlargement of cheek tissue and other facial structures
papilloma neoplasm arising from epithelial cells; benign tumor
verruca vulgaris (oral warts) Viral cause, possibly from finger sucking
fibroma fibrous tumor
granuloma ganular tumor
neurofibromatosis tumor on peripheral nerves
hemangioma vascular tumor, usually located in the neck/head area
lymphangioma tumor made up of lymphatic vessels
lymphoma new tissue growth within the lymphatic system
mucocele mucous cyst
ranula mucocele in the floor of the mouth in the sublingual duct
scorbutic lacking vitamin C
candidiasis fungus infection, thrush
enamoplasty is the selective reduction of fissures and occlusal irregularities caused by grinding
festooned trimmed
apexpgenesis treatment of a vital pulp to allow continued natural development
apexification treatment of a nonvital tooth to stimulate closure and the development of cementum
pulp capping placement of medication to sedate and treat inflamed pulp
indirect capping is needed when the pulp has not yet been exposed
direct capping the medicament is placed directly upon the exposed, affected pulp
pulpotomy partial or full removal of pulpal tissue located in the crown
pulpectomy removal of pulpal tissue from the crown and root sections
papoose board wrapping device used to restrain the patient for a difficult or precise treatment
topical anesthesia liquid, gel, or ointment that provides temporary numbing of the tissue surface
Created by: b_nybabe101