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Transfusion rxns

adverse effects of blood transfusion

QuestionAnswer
Most common cause of ABO-incompatibility-induced acute hemolysis patient misidentification
Drug-induced hemolysis is commonly caused by these drugs cefotetan, ceftriaxone, and NSAIDs
Mechanical hemolysis can occur in these settings artificial heart valves, extracorporeal circulation, transfusion through a small bore catheter under high pressure
What is done to mitigate the risk of a febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR)? leukoreduction
These common conditions are more common in patients who have allergic transfusion reactions hay fever and food allergy
What should you do if a patient with a history of anaphylactic transfusion reactions needs a RBC transfusion? wash the cells
second most common cause of transfusion-associated fatalities TACO
Definition of TRALI acute lung injury with hypoxemia within 6 hours of transfusion. No prior risk factors for acute lung injury.
The most common cause of TRALI infusion of HLA antibodies that opsonize WBCs and get stuck in pulmonary capillaries. Contents of neutrophils released damaging lung.
Typical donor implicated in a TRALI reaction multiparous female
Mortality rate for TRALI 10%
How long does TRALI usually last? 48 to 72 hours
Most common cause of transfusion-related mortality TRALI
What causes a "hypotensive transfusion reaction?" generation of bradykinin from activation of the kinin pathway caused by contact of plasma with artificial surfaces.
Most common bacteria in a prospectively cultured blood unit Skin flora (staphylococcus and propionibacteria)
These bacteria which can grow at low temperature may proliferate in RBC units yersinia and pseudomonas
Why should calcium not be added to a unit of blood? it could reverse the anticoagulant effect of citrate
This condition is characterized by onset of profound thrombocytopenia 1 to 3 weeks after transfusion post-transfusion purpura
what blood products have been implicated in post-transfusion purpura? all blood products
What is the pathophysiology of post-transfusion purpura? antibody to platelet antigen (HPA-1a)
What is the treatment and clinical course of post-transfusion purpura? resolves without treatment in 3 weeks if mild. IVIG if bad.
What is the role of platelet transfusion in post-transfusion purpura? emergency only. no role for prophylaxis
How do you prevent transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease? irradiation of cellular blood products
This is the most common cause of post-transfusion hepatitis Hepatitis B
Current estimated window period for HIV 9 days
How do you reduce transfusion associated CMV? leukoreduction and/or seronegative for CMV units
These diseases are associated with HTLV-I 1. adult T-cell leukemia-lymphoma 2. HTLV-associated myelopathy
The most frequently implicated malaria species in a transfusion associated case of malaria plasmodium falciparum
Created by: jfshikle
 

 



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