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Linux+ Exam LX0-103

QuestionAnswer
101.1 – What devices must be terminated in a SCSI chain? The devices at the ends of the chain must be terminated. (One of these may be the SCSI host adapter.)
101.1 – How many SCSI devices do SCSI-1 and SCSI-2 support respectively? SCSI-1 supports 8 and SCSI-2 (wide) supports 16. The host adapter counts as a device.
101.1 – What command displays information about USB buses in the system and the devices connected to them? lsusb lists USB devices.
101.1 – What command would you use to obtain vendor information on PCI devices installed in your system? You'd use the lspci command.
101.1 – Will the lspci command show bus speed and/or IRQ settings for PCI devices installed on a system? The lspci command shows both bus speed and IRQ settings.
101.1 – What files will give you details about the physical or logical devices that are currently using various system resources. /proc/interrupts , /proc/iomem , /proc/ioports , and the files in /proc/irq
101.1 – When are changes to files in /proc/ recognized by the kernel? All changes to files in /proc/ are immediately recognized by the kernel.
101.1 – What is housed in /sys/ and why? /sys houses the sysfs virtual filesystem which provides information about devices (primarily to user utilities).
101.1 – What command will display detailed system hardware configuration information, mainly based on the contents of /proc/ and /sys/ ? lshw
101.1 – When does udev mount the /dev/ directory and what filesystem type is it mounted as? During system startyp, udev mounts /dev/ as file system type tmpfs.
101.1 – Where can additional rules for udev can be created? /etc/udev/rules.d/
101.1 – What is Dbus? DBus is an inter-process communication (IPC) and remote procedure call (RPC) mechanism that allows communication between multiple processes.
101.1 – What does the modprobe command do? It loads or removes one or more modules, including the module you specify and any on which it depends.
101.1 – How would you show the status of kernel modules? lsmod (lsmod has no flags)
101.2 – What is the physical location of the first code an x86 CPU executes when it starts up? This code is located in the firmware (BIOS or EFI), which is stored on a chip on the motherboard.
101.2 – Where on a hard disk does the BIOS look for code to continue the boot process after the BIOS has initialized the hardware? The Master Boot Record (MBR), which is the first sector on the hard disk.
101.2 – In order for the boot loader to load the kernal, driver modules need to be accessible. How do they get loaded so that the boot process can continue? The boot loader mounts the initramfs file into memory as a virtual filesystem during the boot step for the kernel to use. It contains the necessary device driver modules.
101.2 – Which three init systems are used within Linux systems, listed from oldest to newest? SysV init, Upstart, & systemd
101.2 – On a systemd-based installation, what file directs the Linux boot process after the kernel has loaded? /etc/systemd/system/default.target directs the boot process on a systemd installation.
101.2 – On a SysV based installation, what file directs the Linux boot process after the kernel has loaded? The boot process is directed by /etc/inittab on a SysV-based installation.
101.2 – Which two run levels should never be declared as the default run level when using SysV init? 0 and 6
101.2 – What command can you use after Linux has booted to examine the kernel ring buffer? Use the dmesg command to examine the kernel ring buffer. It draws from the /var/log/dmesg file, which contains messages generated upon boot.
101.3 – What command reveals the computer's current runlevel? The runlevel command reveals the computer's current runlevel.
101.3 – What is the standard runlevel for a normal running Linux system? There is no fully standard runlevel; however, runlevel 2 is common on Debian based distributions, and runlevels 3 and 5 are common on Red Hat based distributions.
101.3 – What methods are most commonly used to shut down a Linux system? shutdown -h, telinit 0 (links to init), poweroff, & halt
101.3 – What methods are most commonly used to reboot a Linux system? shutdown -r, telinit 6 (links to init), & reboot
101.3 – How can you keep users informed about problems and likely downtimes when you need to shut down a computer on short notice (say, 10 minutes)? Pass a warning message at the end of a shutdown command, like so. shutdown -h +10 "server needs new disk; up in an hour"
101.3 – In systemd, what commands would be used to manage services? systemctl [COMMAND] [SERVICE] Commands: start, stop, restart, status, enable, disable, etc.
101.3 – In SysV and Upstart, what commands would be used to manage services? /etc/init.d/[SERVICE] [COMMAND] Commands: start, stop, reload, restart, & force-reload
101.3 – What directory are systemd customizations stored in? /etc/systemd/
101.3 – Which SysV init configuration file should be modified to disable the ctrl-alt-delete key combination? /etc/inittab is the configuration file for SysV
101.3 – What does the following command do? echo foo | wall It broadcasts a message to all logged in users.
102.1 – On what MBR partition type(s) (primary, extended, or logical) may the Linux root ( / ) partition reside? The Linux root partition may reside on a primary or logical partition. Extended partitions are "placeholders" for one or more logical partitions.
102.1 - What is kept in the /boot/ directory? Boot loader files are; such as kernels, initrd, initramfs, etc.
102.1 - What is kept in the /var filesystem? Variable files whose content is expected to continually change during normal operation of the system; such as logs, spool files, and temporary e-mail files.
102.1 – In what two forms does Linux swap space generally come? It may come as a dedicated swap partition or a swap file within a regular filesystem.
102.1 – List the main features for LVM (Logical Volume Manager). Hot swappable disks, easily resized filesystems, volume snapshots, & logical volumes of multiple physical entities.
102.2 – Where can the GRUB boot loader code be installed on a BIOS-based computer? Also, which location is compatible with Windows FDISK? The GRUB boot loader can be installed on the hard disk's MBR or a Linux partition's boot sector. Install to the primary Linux partition's boot sector for Windows compatibility.
102.2 – Where are the GRUB legacy configuration files located and what are their names? The GRUB Legacy configuration files are located in the /boot/grub/ directory and named grub.conf and menu.lst .
102.2 – After editing your GRUB Legacy configuration file, what command should you type to ensure that your changes take effect? None; GRUB Legacy reads its configuration file at boot time, so you don't need to regenerate it after editing the configuration file.
102.2 - Why should you not edit /boot/grub/grub.cfg directly to change Grub 2 configuration? The command grub-mkconfig generates the file /boot/grub/grub.cfg after changing appropriate configuration files.
102.2 - What are the editable configuration files Grub 2? The files in the /etc/grub.d/ directory and the /etc/default/grub file.
102.2 – What GRUB Legacy and GRUB 2 command is used to pass control to another boot loader? The chainloader command, which passes control to the partition specified by a preceding root or rootnoverify command.
102.2 – List both the GRUB legacy and GRUB 2 options to specify a background image file to be displayed at boot time. Grub Legacy: splashimage /grub/splash.xpm.gz Grub 2: GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT="splash"
102.3 – What are the advantages of shared (aka dynamic) libraries over static libraries? Shared libraries saves disk space and saves memory, at least when they're used by multiple programs.
102.3 – What does the ldd command do? The ldd command prints shared library dependencies.
102.3 – If library files are added or removed from a system, what command will update the library cache? What is the path and name of the cache file? ldconfig will update the cache located in /etc/ld.so.cache
102.3 – What human-readable file holds information about library paths? The /etc/ld.so.conf file includes this information.
102.3 – What environment variable contains information about shared libraries and how are entries separated? LD_LIBRARY_PATH is colon separated
102.3 – What happens when you try to run a program that requires a library that's not installed? The program responds with a message saying that it couldn't find a library file. (The message may not be visible if the program is launched in a GUI environment.)
102.4 – What tools are most commonly used to install or remove Debian packages? dpkg - backend debian package manager dselect - older front-end to dpkg apt - newer front end to dpkg aptitude - front end to apt
102.4 – When using apt, what configuration file lists where packages can be obtained from? /etc/apt/sources.list
102.4 – For a previously installed Debian package, how would you configure that package again without reinstalling it? dpkg-reconfigure packagename
102.4 – What command searches for an available apt package? How would you show dependencies when you find a package? apt-cache search packagename apt-cache depends packagename
102.5 - On an RPM system, what is the effect of typing rpm -e somepackage as root? If the package somepackage is installed and not depended on by other programs, it is uninstalled (erased) from the system.
102.5 – What should you type to upgrade the somepackage RPM package with a new file called somepackage-1.2.3-3.i386.rpm ? Type rpm -U somepackage-1.2.3-3.i386.rpm. You could optionally add the flags -v (verbose) and -h (hash marked progress bar).
102.5 – How do you view the changelog for package.rpm before deciding whether to install or upgrade it? rpm -qp --changelog package.rpm (q being query, p being package)
102.5 – What command will extract an archive from a Redhat Package Manager file? rpm2cpio
102.5 – List common yum commands related to package installation or uninstallation. yum install package yum remove package # (or erase) yum reinstall package
102.5 – List common yum commands related to updating packages. yum update [package] yum check-update yum upgrade [package]
102.5 – What is the path and name of the main configuration file for yum? /etc/yum.conf
102.5 – In which directory must definition files be placed to add additional repositories to yum? /etc/yum.repos.d/
102.5 – What will the following command do? yumdownloader --resolve somepackage It will download the package somepackage and its dependencies to the current directory.
103.1 – In Bash, what command prints the exit value of the most recently executed program? echo $?
103.1 – How can you display all of the environment variables that are currently set in your login shell? Type env or printenv or set.
103.1 – What are two ways to set an environment variable only for a sub-process? env FOO=BAR printenv FOO or FOO=BAR printenv FOO Both of these commands set a modified environment variable only available to the process printenv.
103.1 – What command makes an environment variable available to subshells? export
103.1 – In BASH, what is the most efficient way to add an entry to your working path. export PATH=$PATH:/path/to/dir1
103.1 – What command will show you the path of the directory in which you're currently working? The pwd command will show you the path of the directory you're in currently.
103.1 – What BASH command will prevent you from overwriting a file when using either a > or a >> redirection operator? set -o noclobber
103.1 – How would you activate and deactivate a shell trace and what is it? set -x # activate trace # Now commands and their arguments print as they are executed. set +x # deactivate trace
103.1 – What does the following command do? unset FOO It removes the assigned value from the variable FOO .
103.1 – How would you read a Linux manual page for topic? Type man topic, where topic is the name of the command, configuration file, or other topic you want to investigate.
103.1 – How do man pages and info pages differ? man pages are "flat" documents; that is, single files. By contrast, info pages use hypertext (similar to web pages) to help organize documents.
103.1 – What can you learn from the uname utility? You can learn the kernel name, the network hostname, the kernel release, the kernel version number, the machine name, the processor type, the hardware platform, and the OS name.
103.1 – List common uname flags and their definitions. -a all info -n network hostname -r release number for kernel -v version -p processor type
103.1 – If a user had two terminals open, how could the session history be merged from one terminal into the other? From a terminal: history -a #append session history to history file To another terminal: history -n #append new history file lines to session history
103.1 – What file does the history command use to persistent across sessions? .bash_history
103.2 – What does the following pseudocommand do? [somecommand] | cut -d " " -f 3 It pipes output from a command to cut, which produces the third field, delimited by spaces.
103.2 – What command will process a text file by substituting three spaces for each tab and outputting it to a different file? How could you do the opposite? expand -t 3 tabbedfile > spacedfile unexpand -t 3 spacedfile > tabbedfile
103.2 – What does the fmt command do? It reformats the paragraphs within a file.
103.2 – What command shows you the first few lines of a text file? What command shows you the last few lines of a text file? How many lines do the above commands show by default? head shows you the first few lines of a text file. tail shows you the last few lines of a text file. They both display 10 lines by default.
103.2 – What does the -n flag affect for the head and tail commands? It changes the number of lines shown; -n would be followed by a number.
103.2 – As root, you type tail -f /var/log/messages. What will be the result of this command? The command displays the last few lines of /var/log/messages and then continues to monitor the file and display new lines as they're added to it.
103.2 – What does the od command do? The od command (octal dump) displays a non-ASCII file in octal output.
103.2 – What command would you use to combine two tab-delimited text files, that have at least one field in common? join somefile anotherfile
103.2 – What does the nl command do? nl outputs a text file with line numbers.
103.2 – What command would you use to merge two files line by line, separating the lines from each file with tabs? paste somefile anotherfile
103.2 – What command will paginate or columnate text files for printing? pr somefile
103.2 – What stream editor command will replace the first instance of the string “linux” to “Linux” in the text file called somefile and output the results to standard output? sed s/linux/Linux/ somefile
103.2 – What command will arrange a tab-delimited text file by the third field in reverse order? sort -r -k 3 somefile
103.2 – What command will divide a text file into several 2 line files? How will the result files be named? split -l 2 somefile splitfile splitfileaa splitfileab …
103.2 – What translate command will replace all instances of the string “LINUX” to “Linux” in the text file called somefile and output the results to standard output? tr LINUX Linux < somefile
103.2 – What does the uniq command do? uniq inputfile outputfile removes duplicate lines from inputfile and outputs the result to outputfile.
103.2 – What does the wc command do? By default, wc (word count) prints newline, word, and byte counts for a file.
103.3 – What does the cp command accomplish? It copies one or more files.
103.3 – How can you search for stray files belonging to a user when deleting that user's account? find / -uid 504 would find all files owned by the user whose UID is 504.
103.3 – What are the most common find command flags used to locate files based on type, time, or size? -type f #regular file -type d #directory -atime #access time -ctime #changed time -size
103.3 – What does the mv command accomplish? It moves or renames a file or directory.
103.3 – What command would you type at a shell prompt to view the contents of the /usr/local/bin directory with human readable file sizes? ls -lh /usr/local/bin
103.3 – An administrator wants to delete /home/baduser but mistakenly types rm -r /home /baduser as root (note the extra space). What will be the consequence? This command recursively deletes all of the files in the /home and /baduser directories, effectively destroying all users' files (assuming they're all in /home, as is common).
103.3 – What command would alter the timestamp of an existing file? touch -t [CCYYMMDDhhmm.ss] filename
103.3 – How do tar archive files and tarballs differ? A tarball (file.tar.gz) is a compressed tar archive, whereas a plain tar archive file is not compressed.
103.3 – What are the five most commonly used flags used with the tar command? The five most common tar flags are: -c create -x extract -z zip -v verbose (list files) -f archive file name
103.3 – How would you archive all files in the current directory using cpio ? How would you extract them? ls | cpio -ov > files.cpio cpio -iv < files.cpio
103.3 – What command would raw write random data to the second sata drive, four kilobytes at a time? dd if=/dev/urandom of=/dev/sdb bs=4k
103.3 – What does the following command do? file somefile It returns the file type for the file somefile .
103.3 – What do gzip and gunzip do by default with no flags? gzip singlefile #compresses and renames singlefile to singlefile.gz gunzip singlefile.gz #compresses and moves singlefile.gz to singlefile
103.3 – What does a .bz2 file extension indicate? A file compressed with bzip2 will have a .bz2 file extension.
103.4 – What can be used to link together multiple programs so that the output of one program becomes the input of another? Pipes enable you to link together multiple programs. At the command line, the pipe character is a vertical bar | .
103.4 – What is the BEST way to direct the standard output of a program to both the monitor and a file at the same time? [COMMAND] | tee output.log
103.4 – You type the command testprog < somefile.txt. What is the effect of the less-than (<) character in this command? This is an input redirection operator; it causes the contents of somefile.txt to be sent to testprog as if the contents of somefile.txt were typed at the console.
103.4 – How would you redirect standard error to standard out for a script named script.sh ? ./script.sh 2>&1
103.4 – When running a script named script.sh, how would you redirect error messages to a file called error.log ? ./script.sh 2> error.log
103.4 – How could xargs help you search for and remove temp files? find /tmp -name "*tmp" | xargs rm
103.5 – How can a process be started in the background? How can a foreground process be stopped (suspended), then moved to the background? someprocess & #starts process in background [Ctrl]-Z #stops a foreground process bg #moves a stopped process to background
103.5 – How can both backgrounded and stopped (suspended) processes be listed? How can a backgrounded process be brought to the foreground? How can a backgrounded process be killed? jobs #lists backgrounded and stopped processes fg %3 #brings 3rd process to foreground kill %3 #kills 3rd process
103.5 - How do you tell kill what process you want to terminate? Pass kill the target process's process ID (PID) number.
103.5 – You want to kill a process by name. What command can you use to do this? Type killall processname. Alternatively, you can use ps to find the process ID (PID) of the process and use kill.
103.5 – What happens if you type the following command in a terminal window and then exit the terminal window afterwards? nohup xeyes The xeyes program will run independently of it's parent process (the terminal window), so it will keep running after the terminal is exited.
103.5 – How can you identify processes that consume an inordinate amount of CPU time? You can use either the top utility or the ps utility with appropriate switches.
103.5 – What is the function of the top program? top displays an ordered process list, updating it frequently. By default, top orders processes by CPU use, but you can give it commands to order processes by other criteria.
103.5 – What does the following command do? free -h The amount of free and used memory in the system will be shown in human readable form.
103.5 – What does the output of the uptime utility show? The output of the uptime utility shows the time the system has been running as well as three load averages (for the past minute, the past 5 minutes, and the past 15 minutes).
103.5 – What do the pgrep and pkill commands do? They either look up or signal processes based on name and other attributes.
103.5 – What is screen? Screen is a full-screen text-based window manager.
103.6 - What is the purpose of the nice command? It allows you to run a program with a specified priority, -20 being highest and 19 lowest.
103.6 – What is the effect of running this command as root? renice 19 2548 The priority of the process with a process ID (PID) number 2548, if it's present, is changed to 19; that is, the process's priority is set to the lowest possible value.
103.7 - You type ps ax | grep xterm. What is the purpose of the grep xterm portion of this command? It searches the output for the string xterm. The grep command searches for patterns in input files (the output of the ps ax command, given the pipe in the original command).
103.7 – What is the difference between grep and egrep? The grep program uses basic regular expressions by default, but egrep uses extended regular expressions by default.
103.7 - Using regular expression (regex) character matching, answer the following. How would a list of characters (or a single) be indicated? How would a range of characters be indicated? How would any single character (except newline) be indicated? [a] (bracket expression) matches any character within the brackets [1-3] a range is indicated within a bracket expression using a dash . (dot) matches any character except a newline
103.7 - When using a regular expression (regex), how are the start and end of lines indicated? ^ carat is start of line, end of line is dollar sign $
103.7 - Using regular expression (regex) repetition operators, how are the following indicated? zero or more occurances one or more occurances zero or one match * indicates zero or more occurances + indicates one or more occurances ? indicates zero or one match
103.7 - When using a regular expression (regex), what does a vertical bar | mean; what do () parentheses mean? car|truck a vertical separates two possible string matches () parentheses separate subexpressions
103.8 - What modes does the vi editor support, and what are they for? The vi editor supports command mode (internal vi commands), ex mode (external and file-related commands), and input mode (edit text).
103.8 – What two ways could you save the current file and exit the vi editor? How would you save without exiting? How would you exit without saving the file? :wq or ZZ will write and quit :w! will force write (save without quitting) :q! will force quit (without saving)
103.8 – In the vi editor, what are the two ways to enter input mode by appending? a #append after cursor A #append to current line
103.8 – In the vi editor, what are the two ways to enter input mode by inserting? i #insert before cursor I #insert beginning of line
103.8 – In the vi editor, what are the two ways to enter input mode on another line? o #open line below O #open line above
103.8 – In the vi editor, how could you search for a term either forward or backward? / #search forward ? #search backward
103.8 – What do the following four characters do in the vi editor? h j k l They navigate the cursor back, down, up, and forward.
103.8 – In the vi editor visual mode, how would you change, yank, or delete? c #change (delete and insert) y #yank d #delete
104.1 - What are the two ways to create an ext3 filesystem in a previously created partition? mkfs -t ext3 /dev/sdc1 #actually calls the below mkfs.ext3 /dev/sdc1 #which you can run directly (aka mke2fs)
104.1 – What are the two ways to create a fat32 filesystem in a previously created partition? mkfs -t vfat /dev/sdc1 #actually calls the below mkfs.vfat /dev/sdc1 #which you can run directly (aka mkdosfs)
104.1 – Your computer has a large hard disk, and you can't allow extended downtime doing filesystem checks after a power failure. How can you avoid this? Use a journaling filesystem, such as Btrfs, ext3, ext4, ReiserFS, or XFS.
104.1 – What command will show the name of a USB device that was not automatically mounted? The fdisk -l commands lists the partitions on your system.
104.1 – What fdisk command creates a new partition, after opening the utility? Typing n creates a new partition in fdisk.
104.1 – What text-mode program(s) might you use to edit the partitions on a GPT disk? gdisk or parted
104.1 - What two commands will allow the creation and use of swap space on partition sda7 ? mkswap /dev/sda7 swapon /dev/sda7
104.2 – What will the following command do? du -hs /opt It will list the human readable size (summary) of the /opt directory's contents.
104.2 – What does the df command show? It reports file system and disk space usage.
104.2 - What is fsck and what is its basic syntax, used on sda2? fsck is a filesystem check tool (the frontend to e2fsck, fsck.ext2, etc.) fsck /dev/sda2 -t [fstype] #can be optionally indicated
104.2 - How can dumpe2fs, tune2fs, and debugfs help with filesystem maintenance? dumpe2fs -h /dev/sdb1 #human readable fs info on sdb1 tune2fs and debugfs tune filesystem options
104.2 – What is the difference between xfs_info and xfs_metadump? xfs_info provides filesystem information. xfs_metadump provides debugging information for developers.
104.3 – In /etc/fstab , what option must an entry have to allow a user to mount a file system? The users option, as in /dev/hdc1 /data ext3 noauto,users 0 0
104.3 - Assuming default options, how would /dev/sdc1 be mounted in /mnt/temp ? How would it be unmounted? mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt/temp umount /dev/sdc1
104.3 - Assuming default options, how would a partition be mounted in /mnt/temp by either partition label or UUID (instead of by device)? mount -L PARTLABEL /mnt/temp mount -U 953d6425... /mnt/temp
104.4 - What two commands displays users' disk usage and limits? quota repquota -a
104.4 – What utility allows you to edit disk quota information? The edquota utility allows you to edit disk quota information.
104.4 - What commands can be run as root to enable or disable quotas? quotaon quotaoff
104.5 - How do SUID (setuid) permissions affect executables? How is it indicated? Any user with permission to run the executable will run it using the owner's privileges. s in owner execute column (high-order octal 4)
104.5 - How do SGID (setgid) permissions affect directories? How is it indicated? New files and subdirectories created within it will inherit its group ID, rather than the primary group ID of the user who created the file. s in group execute column (high-order octal 2)
104.5 – What is the function of the sticky bit? How is it indicated? A sticky bit is set on a directory so that any file within can only be deleted by its owner or the directory owner. t in world execute position (high-order octal 1)
104.5 – What is accomplished by the command chmod a+x scriptfile.sh ? The command adds execute permissions for the owner, group, and world to scriptfile.sh (the file is made executable).
104.5 – What numbers represent which permissions in octal notation? Read: 4 Write: 2 Execute: 1
104.5 – The user sneaky types chown sneaky sensitive.txt. What is the effect? An error message results. Only root may use chown to change the ownership of a file.
104.5 – What command will show you the numeric value currently being subtracted from the default permissions of newly created files and directories? The umask command does. Default permissions are determined by subtracting the octal umask setting from 777 for directories or 666 for files.
104.5 - What two commands could change only the group of a file (assuming the file is named somefile and the group is named somegroup)? chgrp somegroup somefile chown :somegroup somefile
104.5 – What is the difference between a hard link and a symbolic link? A hard link is two or more filenames that point to the same inode and hence the same file. A symbolic link is a file that points to another file by name; accessing the symbolic link accesses the linked-to file.
104.6 - What command would create a soft link named "link" to a file named "file"? How can you identify a soft link with an ls -l ? ln -s file link lrwxrwxrwx 1 ... link -> file
104.6 - What command would create a hard link named "link" to a file named "file"? How can you identify a hard link with an ls -l ? ln file link There would be a "2" in the inode column.
104.7 – Where do most system configuration files normally reside? Most system configuration files reside in /etc or its subdirectories.
104.7 - Where would you expect to find common executables that should be available to all users? /usr/bin is the directory set aside in the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) for such programs.
104.7 – Where do programs installed from source code normally reside? They reside on /usr/local.
104.7 - What are the differences between which and whereis? which searches only the PATH variable for an executable whereis searches for binary, source and man pages in standard Linux places
104.7 - What is the main limitation of the locate utility? It relies on updatedb (usually run by cron) to update its search database.
104.7 – What is the configuration file for updatedb ? /etc/updatedb.conf
Created by: randomenthusiast