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|The first Chinese dynasty established around 2200 BCE along the Yellow River with Yu(hero of flood control) as their king and Erlitou as their capital. Organized large-scale public works projects to help establish authority and political institutions.
|(Huang He River). 2,920 miles long, periodically floods and devastates fields, communities, etc. Altered its course many times and caused so much destruction that is was nicknamed "China's Sorrow."
|The Yellow River
|Yangshao society; flourished from 5000-3000 BCE in the middle region of the Yellow River Valley. Well-known for the discovery in 1952 of a neolithic village at Banpo, near modern Xi'an. Found painted pottery and bone tools used by early cultivators.
|Yangshao Society and Banpo Village
|Technology helps explain the rise and success of the Shang dynasty. Bronze metallurgy went to China from southwest Asia, with horse-drawn chariots, horses and other wheeled vehicles. They reached China by 1200 BCE.
|Bronze Metallurgy and Horse-Drawn Chariots
|Shang rulers relied on a large corps of political allies. Local rulers recognized the authority of the Shang kings. Shang kings may have controlled one thousand or more towns. Others who shared the agricultural surplus.
|Shang Political Organization
|Most remarkable feature of this site is the city wall, 33 feet high, 66 feet thick. Even today, parts of the wall of Ao still survive at a height of 10-13 feet. The wall required 10,000 workers working 20 years.
|The Shang Capital at Ao
|More impressive than Ao, archaeologists identified a complex of royal palaces, archives with written documents, some residential neighborhoods, two large bronze foundries, several workshops .
|The Shang Capital at Yin
|Legendary and historical accounts paid special attention to the Xia and Shang dynasties because of their location in the Yellow River Valley, where the first Chinese imperial states rose in later times.
|Beyond the Yellow River Valley
|according to Zhou accounts, the last Shang king was a greedy drunk, tyrant. As a result, many of the towns and political districts under the Shang transferred their loyalties to the Zhou.
|The Rise of the Zhou
|The Zhou dynasty wrote a set of principles that influenced Chinese thinking about government. Zhou theory of politics based on the assumption that earthly events were closely related to heavenly affairs.
|The Mandate of Heaven
|Zhou state was larger than the Shang, so large that a single court couldn't rule the entire land effectively. As a result, Zhou rulers relied on a decentralized administration: they entrusted power, authority, and responsibility to subordinates
|Zhou kings couldn't maintain control over the decentralized political system. Subordinates eventually established their own bases of power: they ruled their territories not only as allies of the Zhou kings.
|Weakening of the Zhou
|Technological developments also worked in favor of subordinate rulers. Zhou kings couldn't control the production of bronze as closely as the Shang did, so subordinates built a stockpile of weapons.
|During the Xia, Shang and early Zhou dynasties, royal family and allied noble families occupied most honored positions in Chinese society. They lived in large compounds, lived on the agricultural surplus and taxes delivered by their subjects.
|A small class of free artisans and craftsmen piled their trades in the cities of ancient China. During Shang dynasty, bronze metalsmiths lived in houses built of pounded earth.
|Long distance trade routes reached China during Shang and Xia dynasties. Trade networks linked China to the west and south early in the 3rd millennium BCE.
|Merchants and Trade
|Large class of semi-servile peasants populated Chinese countryside. They didn't own land but provided agricultural, military and labor services for their lords in exchange for plots to cultivate, security,and a portion of the harvest.
|mostly enemy warriors captured in battles between the many competing states of ancient China
|Reason for pronounced influence of the Chinese family. Early agricultural people tended the graves and memories of their deceased ancestors.
|Veneration of Ancestors
|Elderly males who headed the household had most authority. Chinese men had public authority, but women were important too. Two queens had, they had temples built in their memories.
|Oracle bones were main instruments used by Chinese fortune tellers. Diviners used special broad bones(shoulder blades of sheep or turtle shells), they inscribed a question on the bone and then heated it by placing it in the fire
|Several writings of the Zhou dynasty won recognition as works of high authority, and they exercised deep influence because they served as textbooks in Chinese schools.
|Most notable of the classic works, also known as the Book of Poetry and the Book of Odes, a collection of verses on themes both light and serious.
|The Book of Songs
|Most Zhou writings have perished. Ones written on bamboo and silk fabrics have deteriorated, others destroyed by people.
|Destruction of Early Chinese Literature
|Chinese cultivators met nomadic people who built pastoral societies in the grassy steppe lands of central Asia.
|Nomads did little farming, instead, they focused on herding their animals to places with food and water. Herds provided food, tools(bone tools) and clothing. Nomads served as links to agricultural societies between east and west.
|Chang Jiang "Long River". 3,915 miles long, doesn't bring floods like the Yellow River. Intensive cultivation of rice depended on the construction and maintenance of an elaborate irrigation system
|The Yangzi Valley
|During the late Zhou dynasty, the powerful state of Chu(central region of the Yangzi), governed its affairs and challenged the Zhou for supremacy.
|The State of Chu
|Period of the Warring States
|what is a dynasty?
|a line of hereditary rulers of a country.
|where was the Yellow River valley located?
|around the north china plain
|what was allowed for these societies to start?
|What were the politics of early societies in East Asia?
|Small groups controlled a small territory, and some of these groups expanded their control over other territories to create dynasty control.
|What was an advantage that the early Chinese societies had over Mesopotamian societies?
|The area in where they started their civilization had typical rainfall, which allowed for early cultivators to avoid creating a complex irrigation system
|How did a new successor for a dynasty get selected?
|They look for the first born legitimate son of the current ruler.
|What does legitimate mean?
|In family matters, it refers to a child given birth to by a mother and their spouse. In politics, it means that something abides by the rules,
|What does conspicuous mean?
|Attracts attention, stands out from the rest
|What is the Mandate of Heaven?
|an ancient Chinese belief that says that heaven is the deciding power that gives rule to an emperor as long as they can rule well and fairly
|legendary emperor from 24th century B.C.E. from Golden Age of antiquity.
|legendary ruler, 200-2100 B.C.E. -famous for control on floods
|Book of Changes
|manual intructing diviners in art of foretelling future
|Book of History
|collection of documents,justified Zhou state, called for subjects to obey their overlords
|legendary dynasty, 2205-1766 B.C.E
|dynasty 1766-1122 B.C.E.bronze work
|dynasty 1122-221 B.C.E. great intellectual achievements
|feudal state of Zhou period
|individual who writes and copies documents