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Cell Organelles

The Parts of a Plant cell and an Animal cell

Animal Cell: Cell Membrane The protective outer layer that controls what enters and leaves the cell.
Nucleus Stores information on DNA molecules / Directs and controls the activities of the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum A folded membrane that moves materials around inside cells / Also acts as the site of manufacturing materials needed by the cell.
Ribosomes The smallest organelle with a huge job / Makes proteins, which are the building blocks of the body.
Vacuole A small sack that stores water and food until the cell needs it / Stores waste temporarily until the cell gets rid of it.
Cytoplasm A gel-like material that streams through the cell holding all the other organelles / Also stores chemicals needed for cell processes.
Golgi Body Stacks of pancake-like membranes that package materials to ship out of the cell.
Mitochondrion Bean-shaped organelle filled with folded membranes / Breaks down glucose to release energy for cell functions
Lysosome Small sacks with pores / Contains digestive enzymes that get rid of waste, worn-out cell parts, and captured invaders.
Plant Cell: Cell Wall A rigid outer structure that provides support and protection for the cell. The cell wall is outside the cell membrane.
Vacuole The vacuole is much larger in the plant cell; it is the largest organelle. Its function is to store water for cell use. The water also pushes out on the cell membrane/cell wall making the plant rigid and able to stand up.
Chloroplast This organelle contains the green pigment called chlorophyll. The pigment captures energy from sunlight. The organelle stores that energy in glucose molecules (sugar). This is the beginning of food in most food chains.
Bacteria Cell: Chromosome A single strand of DNA that floats in the cytoplasm / Is NOT enclosed in a nucleus / Directs the activities of the cell.
Pili Hair-like projections that help the bacteria attach to structures in their environment.
Flagellum A long, whip-like tail that helps the cell “swim” through liquid environments.
Capsule Surrounds the cell membrane and cell wall / protects the bacteria from drying out / Causes disease in the organism that the bacteria invades / Protects the bacteria against white blood cells.