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APCSP Lesson 2.5

Terminology -- Basics

TermDefinition
Software the programs that control computers
Special purpose computer a computer that has a fixed program (e.g. a calculator, a watch, a car's brakes)
Input devices bring data and programs into the computer (e.g. mouse, keyboard)
Central Processing Unit (CPU) is the hardware that carries out the instructions of a computer program.
Applications program or group of programs designed for end users such as Firefox, Excel, Word, Angry Birds, etc.
Motherboard houses the computer's main electronic components
Output devices transmit data to other computers or to users (e.g. printer, monitor)
Machine Language a programming language that is machine readable (binary code), closer to the machine hardware, and provides abstractions that are difficult for the programmer to understand
Integrated Circuit packed with millions of electronic components
Program a sequence of instructions that controls the computer. To run, it must be loaded into the computer's memory where the CPU executes it one instruction at a time.
Operating System is a collection of computer software that manages hardware resources and provides common services for computer programs. MacOS, Windows, Android, Linux, iOS are examples of this
General purpose computer a computer that can run many different programs (e.g. a smartphone)
Byte One of these is the equivalent of 8 bits of data
High-­level language a programming language that is human readable (App Inventor) and provides the programmer with easy to understand abstractions
Compiler a software that translates source code (human readable code) into binary code
Computer a machine that processes information under the control of a program
Chips the computer’s electrical components are composed of these very tiny integrated circuits (ICs)
Memory physical device used to store information for use in a computer or other digital electronic R. Machine language device (e.g. disk drive, flash drive)
Bit a binary digit, the smallest unit of data, a 1 or a 0
RAM (Random Access Memory) also called main memory stores the computer's programs and data temporarily while power is on
Hardware the computer’s electronic and mechanical components
Created by: mgarda