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transfusion practice

handbook

QuestionAnswer
This crossmatch-to-transfusion ratio (C:T) is considered appropriate 2:1
When can the 72 hour limit on a type & screen be extended? Patient with negative antibody screen and no transfusion or pregnancy within preceding 3 months (can extend up to one month)
Define "massive transfusion" Replacement of 1 or more blood volumes within 24 hours
How do you estimate blood volume in an adult? 70ml/kg or about 5000ml in 70 kg adult
What is the leading cause of pregnancy associated death? postpartum hemorrhage
What is the most common cause of clinically significant hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn? Antibody to the RhD antigen
Why are Kell related cases of hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn so severe? The antibodies not only hemolyze RBCs in peripheral blood, but suppress fetal hematopoiesis
What is the "critical titer" of anti-D in maternal serum? 16:1 or greater
What if RBCs less than 7 days old are not available for a neonatal exchange transfusion? Wash the RBCs (potassium)
Describe Neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia maternal antibodies to fetal platelet antigens, particularly HPA-1a (Pl(A1)
How much of a bump in hemoglobin is expected in a neonatal transfusion of 10ml/kg over 3 hours? 2 or 3 g/dL
How do you reduce risk of hyperkalemia in large volume neonatal transfusion patients? washing the units or less than 7d old units
For children, randomized studies have shown that in stable, critically ill children this level of hemoglobin is tolerated without increase in morbidity or mortality down to 7gm/dL
Which is the more common cause of platelet refractoriness: A. immune cause B. non-immune cause? B.
The most common alloantibodies associated with platelet refractoriness antibodies to Class I HLA antigens
This is a thrombopoetin receptor agonist approved for ITP romiplostim
This process reduces incidence of primary HLA alloimmunization leukoreduction
The most common cause of fatal hemolytic transfusion reactions misidentification of either the blood unit or the recipient
After a transfusion is started, the patient should be closely observed for this period of time 15 minutes, then periodically until finished
Blood should be infused within this timeframe 4 hours
A unit of RBCs that has been allowed to warm beyond this temperature, but not used, cannot be reissued. 10 degrees C
Solution allowed to be infused with blood normal saline, plasmalyte, FFP
Why is lactated ringers not allowed to be infused with blood? calcium in lactated ringers can cause clotting {binds citrate(anti-coagulant)}
Pore size for standard blood filter 170 to 260 microns
Created by: jfshikle