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# ABA 740

A feature of an event that can be measured is called a(n) Dimension
All of the following are measurable dimensional Topography
If you are interested in amount of time it takes a student to begin a task after the teacher has given an instruction you would measure _________________. Response latency
The force or intensity of a behavioral response is called Magnitude
The procedure of observing and recording behavior during intervals or at specific moments in time is called ___________. Time sampling
A procedure that can be used to measure a continuous behavior such as academic engagement is _____________________. Whole interval
All of the following behaviors could be assessed using natural permanent product measurement except: Raising hand in class
Permanent product measurement may be more accurate, complete, and continuous for all of the following reasons except: The behavior definitions are more precise
A teacher is interested in measuring the engagement of groups of students at certain times of the day. An appropriate measurement procedure for this would be Planned activity check
_________________ measurement facilitates data collection for interobserver agreement and treatment integrity. Direct observation
A procedure that allows for the simultaneously recording of multiple behaviors across multiple dimensions is called ______________. Computer-assisted
Measurement is the process of applying qualitative labels to events. False
The number of response opportunities needed to achieve a predetermined level of performance is called trials-to-criterion. True
A feature of data that appears to exist because of the way the data is measured or examined is called an artifact. True
The amount of time that elapses between two consecutive instances of a response class is called response latency. False
One benefit of measurement is that it helps practitioners verify the legitimacy of different treatments. True
Measurement is ___________ when it yields the same values across repeated measurement of the same event. Reliable
Measurement __________________ are data that give an unwarranted or misleading picture of the behavior because of the way measurement was conducted. Artifacts
__________________ _____________ is the biggest threat to the accuracy and reliability of data. Human error
Observer _____________ is an unintended change in the way an observer uses a measurement system over the course of an investigation. Drift
_______________ ____________________ is the degree to which two or more independent observers report the same observed values after measuring the same events. Interobserver Agreement (IOA)
Which is a false statement about the requirements of IOA? IOA observers must always score videotapes together
Measurement that is _____________ , ________________, and reliable yields the most trustworthy and useful data for science and science-based practices Valid, accurate
Which of the following is not a factor that contributes to measurement error? Well-trained observers
Measurement bias caused by observer expectations can be avoided by using _______ observers. Naïve
__________________ ______ ___________________ between observers is the most common convention for reporting IOA in ABA. Percentage of Agreement
Scored – interval IOA is recommended for behaviors that occur at relative _________frequencies; unscored – interval IOA is recommended for behaviors that occur at relative _____________frequencies. Low, high
Measurement is accurate when observed values, the data produced by measuring an event, match the true state, or true values, of the event. True
Observers should not receive systematic training prior to data collection because training will cause observer bias. False
Observers should receive feedback about the extent to which their data confirm or run counter to hypothesized results or treatment goals. False
True values for some behaviors (e.g., compliance) are difficult because the process for determining true value must be different from the measurement procedures used to obtain the data one wishes to compare to the true value. True
A mean of 80% agreement means the data are accurate. False
Behavior change is considered a ________ and _______ process, therefore it is important to maintain direct and continuous contact with the behavior under investigation. Dynamic, on-going
_____________ are relatively simple formats for visually displaying relationships among and between a series of measurements and relevant variables. Graphs
The three fundamental properties of behavior illustrated on a graph include: Level, trend, variability
Graphs are considered a _______________ _______________; devices that help the practitioner or experimenter interpret the results of a study or treatment. Judgmental aid
The __________ graph is the most common graphic format for displaying data in applied behavior analysis. Line
Bar graphs sacrifice the presentation of the ____________ and ___________ in behavior. Variability, trends
On a cumulative record the steeper the slope, ____________ the response rate. The higher
Logarithmic scales are well suited to display and communicate ______________________ change. Proportional
This type of graph provides a standardized means of charting and analyzing how the frequency of behavior changes over time. Standard Celeration Chart
Precision teaching focuses on ________________ rather than the specific frequency of correct and incorrect responses. Celeration
Behavior analysts typically use _________________ ____________________ to interpret graphically displayed data Visual analysis
lue on the vertical axis scale around which a set of behavior measures converge is called ______________. Level
The overall direction taken by a data path is its __________________. Trend
Graphs are not considered an effective source of feedback to the person whose behavior change is represented.  False
A cumulative record should be used if the target behavior can only occur once per measurement period. True
You should always connect data points on a line graph, even if there is a condition change line. False
Overall response rate refers to the average rate of response over a given time period.   True
If you believe the data on a graph are distorted by the scaling of the axes you should re-plot the data on a new graph before continuing with visual analysis. True
The basic unit of analysis in the analysis of operant behavior; encompasses the temporal and possible dependent relations among an antecedent stimulus, behavior, and consequence. Three-term contingency
A time sampling method for measuring behavior in which the observation period is divided into a series of brief time intervals (typically from 5 to 15 seconds). At the end of each interval, the observer records whether the target behavior occurred through whole-interval
A two-phase experimental design consisting of a pre-treatment baseline condition (a) followed be a treatment condition (B). AB design
The variable in an experiment measured to determine if it changes as a result of manipulations of the independent variable; in applied behavior analysis, it represents some measure of a socially significant behavior. (See target behavior; compare with ind Dependent variable
The particular type and sequence of conditions in a study so that meaningful comparisons of the effects of the presence and absence (or different values) of the independent variable can be made. Experimental design
The variable that is systematically manipulated by the researcher in an experiment to see whether changes in the independent variable produce reliable changes in the dependent variable. In applied behavior analysis, it is usually an environmental event or Independent variable
A wide variety of research designs that use a form of experimental reasoning called baseline logic to demonstrate the effects of the independent variable on the behavior of individual subjects. Can be considered the most frequently used design in behavio Single-subject design
The science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for the improvement in behavior. Applied behavior analysis
Repeating conditions within an experiment to determine the reliability of effects and increase internal validity (see baseline logic, prediction, verification.) (b) Repeating whole experiments to determine the generality of findings of previous experiment Replication
Occurs when the behavior that is measured is the same as the behavior that is the focus of the investigation. Direct measurement
Occurs when the behavior that is measured is in some way different from the behavior of interest; considered less valid than direct measurement because inferences about the relation between the data obtained and the actual behavior of interest are require Indirect measurement
An experimental design in which two or more conditions (one of which may be a no treatment control condition) are presented in rapidly alternating succession (e.g., on alternating sessions or days) independent of the level of responding; differences in re Alternating treatments design
This person is considered to be the founder of experimental analysis of behavior. B.F. Skinner
In changing criterion design each phase of the design provides a ______ for the following phase. Baseline
An experimental design used to evaluate the effects of treatment in a graduated or step-wise fashion for a single behavior. Uses prediction and replication to show experimental control. Changing criterion design
______ ______is used to document the amount of time a student spends engaging in a behavior Duration recording
An experiment has a high degree of _______ when the experiment shows convincingly that changes in behavior are a function of the independent variable and not the result of uncontrolled or unknown variables. Internal validity
Time from end of the cue to the beginning of a movement cycle Latency
The observer looks up and records whether a behavior occurs or does not occur at the very end of the interval Momentary Time Sample
The observer is interested in behavior that occurs or not in any part of the interval and that the behavior usually does not consume the entire interval. Partial interval recording
The extent to which a measurement procedure yields the same value when brought into repeated contact with the same state of nature. Reliability
Most basic experimental design in single case research. examines effects of intervention by alternating the baseline condition (A) with the intervention condition (B). The A and B phases are repeated again to complete four phases. Making and testing predi ABAB Design
The degree to which a study's findings have generality to other subjects, settings, and/or behaviors. External validity
A relationship in which one variable changes systematically according to the value of another. Generalization The spread of effect from a particular stimulus to other stimuli that share common elements. Functional Relationship
The specific behavior selected for change Objective, Clear, Complete Target Behavior
Experimental designs that combine multipe baselne, reversal, and/or alternating treatment tactics can also provide the basis for comparing the effects of two or more independent variables Component Analysis
Any experimental design in which the researcher attempts to verify the effect of the independent variable by "reversing" responding to a level obtained in a previous condition reversal design
A situation that occurs when the level of responding observed in a previous phase cannot be reproduced even though the experimental conditions are the same as they were during the earlier phase Irreversibility
An experimental design that begins with the concurrent measurement of two or more behaviors in a baseline condition, followed by the application of the treatment variable to one of the behaviors while baseline conditions remain in effect for the other beh Multiple baseline design
Measuring behavior after it has occurred by measuring the effects that the behavior produced on the environment Permanent product
Obtained by combining observation time with a tally of the number of occurrences of behavior. Ratio of count per observation time. Rate
This design can be used to evaluate the effects of a treatment on the gradual or stepwise improvement of a behavior already in the subject’s repertoire. Changing criterion design
The number of times a behavior occurs. Frequency is the dimension of measurement one should select when you wan to answer the question "How many times". Frequency
In a single-subject experiment, each treatment is repeated at least once for each subject and behavior is measured. This helps establish the reliability of the results obtained from a single-subject experiment. Intrasubject replication
Often make between group comparisons Typically take “snap shots” of behavior (E.g., pre-test, post-test). Rely primarily on statistical analysis Large Group research results
An assessment administered occasionally during single-case investigation. Probe
One group receives treatment and the other does not. Group Design
Created by: npere18

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