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DAC1 Comp 6

WGU DAC1 Information Systems Management Competency 6

legacy system an old system that is fast approaching or beyond the end of its useful life within an organization
conversion the process of transferring information from a legacy system to a new system
software customization modifies software to meet specific user or business requirements
off-the-shelf application software supports general businesses processes and does not require any specific software customization to meet the organization's needs
systems development life cycle (SDLC) the overall process for developing information systems, from planning and analysis through implementation and maintenance
Planning, Analysis, Design, Development, Testing, Implementation, Maintenance SDLC Phases
planning phase involves establishing a high-level plan of the intended project and determining project goals
change agent a person or event that is the catalyst for implementing major changes for a system to meet business changes
brainstorming a technique for generating ideas by encouraging participants to offer as many ideas as possible in a short period without any analysis until all the ideas have been exhausted
project a temporary activity a company undertakes to create a unique product, service, or result
project management the application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements
project manager an individual who is an expert in project planning and management
project scope describes the business need (the problem the project will solve) and the justification, requirement, and current boundaries for the project
project plan a formal, approved document that manages and controls the entire project
analysis phase analyzing end-user business requirements and refining project goals into defined functions and operations fo the intended system
business requirements the specific business requests the system must meet to be successful, so the analysis phase is critical because business requirements drive the entire systems development effort
requirements management the process of managing changes to the requirements throughout the project
requirements definition document prioritizes all of the business requirements by order of importance to the company
sign-off the system users' actual signatures indicating they approve all of the business requirements
process modeling involves graphically representing the processes that capture, manipulate, store, and distribute information between a system and its environment
data flow diagram (DFD) illustrates the movement of information between external entities and the processes and data stores within the system
computer-aided software engineering (CASE) software suites that automate systems analysis, design, and development
design phase involves describing the desired features and operations of the system including screen layouts, business rules, process diagrams, pseudo code, and other documentation
graphical user interface (GUI) the interface to an information system
development phase involves taking all of the detailed design documents from the design phase and transforming them into the actual system
software engineering a disciplined approach for constructing information systems through the use of common methods, techniques, or tools
control objects for information and related technology (COBIT) a set of best practices that helps an organization to maximize the benefits of an information system, while at the same time establishing appropriate controls to ensure minimum errors
scripting language a programming method that provides for interactive modules to a website
object-oriented languages languages that group data and corresponding processes into objects
fourth-generation languages (4GL) programming languages that look similar to human languages
testing phase involves bringing all the project pieces together into a special testing environment to test for errors, bugs, and interoperability and verify that the system meets all of the business requirements defined in the analysis phase
bugs defects in the code of an information system
test condition the detailed steps the system must perform along with the expected results of each step
implementation phase involves placing the system into production so users can begin to perform actual business operations with the system
user documentation highlights how to use the system
online training runs over the internet or off a CD-ROM
workshop training set in a classroom-type environment and led by an instructor
help desk a group of people who respond to internal system user questions
maintenance phase involves performing changes, corrections, additions, and upgrades to ensure the system continues to meet the business goals
corrective maintenance makes system changes to repair design flaws, coding errors, or implementation issues
preventative maintenance makes system changes to reduce the chance of future system failure
methodologies a set of policies, procedures, standards, processes, practices, tools, techniques, and tasks that people apply to technical and management challenges
waterfall methodology a sequence of phases in which the output of each phase becomes the input for the next
prototyping a modern design approach where the designers and system users use an iterative approach to building the system
discovery prototyping builds a small-scale representation or working model of the system to ensure it meets the user and business requirements
iterative development consists of a series of tiny projects
agile methodology aims for customer satisfaction through early and continuous delivery of useful software components developed by an iterative process using the bare minimum requirements
rapid application development (RAD) Methodology, extreme programming methodology, rational unified process (RUP) methodology, scrum methodology Primary forms of Agile Methodologies
rapid application development (RAD) methodology / rapid prototyping emphasizes extensive user involvement in the rapid and evolutionary construction of working prototypes of a system, to accelerate the systems development process
extreme programming (XP) methodology breaks a project into tiny phases, and developers cannot continue on to the next phase until the first phase is complete
rational unified process (RUP) methodology provides a framework for breaking down the development of software into four gates
scrum methodology uses small teams to produce small pieces of deliverable software using sprints, or 30-day intervals, to achieve an appointed goal
tangible benefits benefits that are easy to quantify and typically measured to determine the success or failure of a project
intangible benefits benefits that are difficult to quantify or measure
feasibility the measure of the tangible and intangible benefits of an information system
time, cost, and scope Triple Constraint Factors
kill switch a trigger that enables a project manager to close the project before completion
PERT (Program Evaluation and Review Technique) chart a graphical network model that depicts a project's tasks and the relationships between them
dependency a logical relationship that exists between the project tasks, or between a project task and a milestone
critical path a path from the start to the finish that passes through all the tasks that are critical to completing the project in the shortest amount of time
Gantt chart a simple bar chart that lists project tasks vertically against the project's time frame, listed horizontally
in-sourcing (in-house development) a common approach using the professional expertise within an organization to develop and maintain the organization's information technology systems
outsourcing an arrangement by which one organization provides a service or services for another organization that chooses not to perform them in-house
onshore outsourcing the process of engaging another company within the same country for services
nearshore outsourcing contracting an outsourcing agreement with a company in a nearby country
offshore outsourcing using organizations from developing countries to write code and develop systems
Created by: csmi384



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