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216 Chapter 17


The contraction, or period of contraction, of the heart that drives the blood onward into the aorta and pulmonary arteries. systole
Influencing the force or energy of muscular contractions. inotropic
The dilatation of the heart; or the period of dilatation, which is the interval between the second and the first heart sound and is the time during which blood enters the relaxed chambers of the heart from the systemic circulation and the lungs. diastole
A small, local, involuntary contraction of muscle resulting from spontaneous activation of a single muscle fiber or of an isolated bundle of nerve fibers. fibrillation
The reduction of a cell membrane potential to a less-negative value than that of the potential outside the cell. depolarization
Moving backward or against the usual direction of flow; reverting to an earlier state or worse condition (degenerating); catabolic. retrograde
A multinucleate mass of protoplasm produced by the merging of a group of cells. syncytium
Pertaining to the whole body rather than to a localized area or region of the body. systemic
Circulation which moves blood through the lungs and creates a link with the gas exchange function of the respiratory system pulmonary (or central)
Circulation which moves blood throughout all the other tissues of the body systemic (or peripheral)
In the circulatory system, depends on a blood volume that is sufficient to fill the blood vessels and a pressure difference across the system that provides the force that is needed to move blood forward. blood flow
Refers to the principles that govern the flow of blood in the vascular system hemodynamics
The relationship between pressure and resistance can be quantified by what has become known as _____________ law Poiseuille's
Describes the relationship between wall tension, pressure, and the radius of a vessel or sphere law of Laplace
Muscular portion of the heart, forms the walls of the atria and ventricles. myocardium
Are unique to cardiac muscle, contain gap junctions that serve as low-resistance pathways for passage of ions and electrical impulses from one cardiac cell to another intercalated discs
Is a thin, three-layered membrane that lines the heart and covers the valves endocardium
Large specialized fibers that allow for rapid conduction and almost instantaneous excitation of both the right and left ventricles. Purkinje
Created by: ACC Bio Harrison