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Renal Phys 1

WVSOM -- Renal Phys -- Functional anatomy and basic processes

QuestionAnswer
What are the 7 functions of the kidney? regulation of water and electrolyte balance, excretion of metabolic waste, excretion of bioactive substances, regulation of arterial pressure, regulation of rbc production, regulation of vit D production, gluconeogenesis
What are the medullary pyramids? collecting ducts in the medulla of the kidney which gives a striped pyramid-like appearance
What does the cortex of the kidney look like? granular outer region
What is the medulla look like? darker inner region
What does the cortex contain? glomeruli
What is the difference between the cortex and medulla? cortex have glomeruli
What are the types of nephrons? Superficial nephrons, mid-cortical nephrons and juxtamedullary nephrons
Where are juxtamedullary nephrons at? border of the cortex and medulla
What are loops like on the Juxtamedulalary nephron? very long that extend into the medulla
How are superficial nephrons different form the juxta-medullary nephron? The superficial nephron has a low pressure peritubular capillary attached to the high resistant efferent while the juxta-medullary nephron has an efferent hairpin loop and vasa recta after the glomerulus
What is the renal corpuscle? contains the glomerulus surrounded by a ballon-like hollow capsule
What is the glomerulus? tuft of interconnected capillary loops inside the renal corpuscle
What is the bowman’s capsule? ballooon like hollow capsule of the renal corpuscle
What is bowman’s space? fluied filled space within bowman’s capsule where the fluid is filtered
What are the 3 layers of the filtration barrier? capillary endothelium, glomerular basement membrane and the layer of epithelial podocytes
What is the first layer of the glomerulus capillary? capillary endothelium
What does the capillary endothelium allow passage of? blood cells and platelets
What are filtration slits? Spaces between the pedicles of the podocytes
What re slit diaphragms? bridge the slits between pedicles
What is the role of glycoporteins and podocytes? Glycoproteins have a negative charge. They cover the podocytes and filtrations slits, and favors the filtration of positively charged solutes.
What kind of charge is the basement membrane and epithelial podocytes covered with? negative charges
What does the overall anatomical arrangement of the filtration barrier allow? passage of large volumes of fluid but restricts filtration of large plasma proteins like albumin
What makes up the juxtaglomerular apparatus? Extraglomerular matrix, macula densa of distal tuble and the granular cells
What is the extraglomerular matrix? glomerular capillary loops that are supported by a network of mesangial cells.
What do mesangial cells secrete? the extracellular matrix
Where is the JGA? where the afferent arteriole kisses the renal corpuscle
What happens when mesangial cells contract? the decrease the surface area of the capillary membrane
What is the macula densa? specialized epithelial cells of the thick ascending limb where it contacts is glomerulus
What does the macula densa do? salt dectors and contribute to the control of the GFR
What is GFR? glomerular filtration rate
What are granular cells? specialized smooth muscle cells in the wall of the afferent arteriole.
What do granular cells do? production, storage and regulation of release of rennin
What does the JGA control? renal blood flow and GFR, Na+ balance and systemic blood pressure
What innervates the kidney? sympathetic, no real parasympathetic
What does freely filtered mean? when a substance is present in the filtrate at the same concentration found in the plasma
What is Glomerular filtrate? fluid that has passed from the blood into bowman’s capsule.
What is the make up of glerular filtrate? mostly like plasma except that it contains very little total protein
What is the glemerular filtration rate? The volume of filtrate formed per unit of time
What is the normal GFR? 180 L/day
What is filtrated and reabsorbed? Na, clucose, AA….most ions…
What are filtered and secreted? urea and K+
What is just secreted? PCN, Morphine and Creatine
What does the proximal tubule do? reabsorbs 2/3 of the filtered water, Na, Cl and all organic substances that need to be conserved and secretes some wastes and some drugs
What organic substances does the proximal tuble reabsorb? glucose and amino acid
What is an example of what proximal tubules secrete? PCN, morphine and urate
What does the distal tuble and connecting tubule do? reabsorb some small additional salt and water.
What regulates the kidney filtration? aldoesterone and ADH
What does aldosterone do? increase Na absorption; increase K secretion
What does ADH do? increase water reabsorption
With aldosterone present, do you have more Na present in the final urine or less? less
With ADH present, is the final urine more concentrated or dilute? concentrated
What do sympathetic regulate in regards to renal function? RBF, GFR, release of rennin
What do adrenal hormones and aldosterone regulate in the kidney? Na and K excretion
What hormone is secreted from the heart? ANP, atrial natriuetic peptide
What does ANP do? increased Na excretion
Where is ADH secreted from? pituitary
What does the Loop of Henle do? reabsorbs ~20% of the filtered Na and Cl and ~10% of filtered H2O from the lumen
Created by: tjamrose