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Bio-101-700, Exam 2

AACC Bio-101-700 Professor Dempster

Chemical composition of an enzyme (protein, sugar, lipid, etc) Most enzymes are proteins. One case is a sugar.
Potential energy is a stored energy. it is energy that amount is based on location and structures.
1st Law of Thermodynamics total amount of energy in universe constant and unchanging. "energy can be transferred and transformed, but it cannot be created or destroyed.
Storage bonds of endergonic energy Covalent bonds
Energy coupling is the use of an exergonic process to drive an endergonic one. "exergonic energy to endergonic reactions is a cycle"
What phosphorylation BASICALLY means Phosphorylation means adding phosphate to make energy
Energy Activation starting chemical reactions the minimum energy required to start a chemical reaction. "it's a transfer of phosphate group."
Three main types of cellular work 1. Chemical Work- pushing of endergonic reactions. phosphorylation to endergonic. 2. Mechanical Work-transfer of phosphate group to drive muscle contraction. 3. Transport Work- phosphorylating membrane proteins to drive muscle contraction.
Enzyme and substrate (hint: think amylase and starch lab) Enzymes are specific to substrate, it has active site. substrate binds with active site in order to start reaction. "if substrate does not fit, reaction will not occur." Ex: Amylase enzyme is specific to starch; it will not break down protein.
High temperature effects on enzyme and substrate Too high temperatures, enzymes denature or fall apart.
pH effects on enzyme and substrate reaction time changes to:_____ "pH effects makes enzymes."
Enzymes as inhibitors (competitive, noncompetitive) How do they work as competitive, and how do they work as noncompetitive. Think NSAIDs. competitive inhibitor -One will compete by noncompetitive inhibitor - One will change the shape temporarily.
Feedback inhibition is the regulations of metabolism.
How shape affects function The shape determines the function
RNA ribozymes. What is it made out of. Sugars
Drugs, poisons, and pesticides on production of ATP stops the reduction reaction, cannot generate ATP, or stops ATP synthesis which results in death.
Membranes are: (hydrophilic, hydrophobic, amphipathic?) Phospholipid is an amphipathic molecule, means it has both hydrophilic region and hydrophobic region. Hydrophilic heads face outward to interact with water while hydrophobic tails face inward for interactions with fatty molecules.
Purpose of transmembrane proteins is a passageways, which span the membranes.
What composes cell surface markers glycolipids and glycoproteins
Phospholipids and bilayers Phospholipids can spontaneously form bilayers. Bilayers.
Different proteins in lipid bilayer and what they do. What are they responsible for. 50+, atttaching the membrane to the cytoskeleton, junction between cells, used for identification purposes.
Active diffusion across a gradient Molecules spreading out, uses energy to move.
Diffusion of CO2 and O2 Diffuse easily because they are small and non-charged.
What ions maintain proper balance in a cell NA+, K+, Calcium
Isotonic, hypertonic, hypotonic Isotonic: Equal exchange Hypertonic: Moving outside to diffuse Hypotonic: Moving inside to diffuse
Transport of large molecules into the cell Endocytosis
Receptor mediated endocytosis Receives and chooses what is coming into the cell.
Cellular respiration creates _________ for cell Energy
Use of O2 (in regards to cellular respiration) Aerobically, long muscle contractions, used by slow fibers (mitochondria), produces ATP, CO2, and H2O
Use without O2 (in regards to cellular respiration) Anaerobically, quick energy, produces less ATP, thicker muscle fibers, source of short bursts of energy that cannot be sustained
Efficiency of ATP Very efficient, one of the most efficient forms of energy.
Oxidation and reduction reactions (think electrons) They have to be paired with each other. it's a movement of electron from one molecule to another.
Oxidized lose the electrons to become more positive
Reduced gains electrons
Purpose of NAD+ it storage molecule and shuttle molecule. it's a helper enzymes.
Final electron acceptor Oxygen (O2)
What is Glycolysis Stage 1 of Oxidative Phosphorylation
Where does glycolysis take place? cytoplasm
What molecules result from glycolysis? it breaks molecules of glucose into 2 pyruvate (3 carbon molecules)
What is the citric acid cycle? Stage 2, occurs in the mitochondria, moves to stage 3 to make full use of energy.
Where does the citric acid cycle take place? From the cytoplasm to mitochondria
Generally how much ATP is produced during the citric acid cycle? 1 by substrate level phosphorylation
Stage 3 oxidative phophorylation Know which processes are involved (gradient, hydrogen ions, osmosis?) - it has electron transport chain called chemiosmosis. as electrons are being "passed down" chain, H+ are released and move across mitochondria membrane.
Glycolysis as intermediate and its product to reactants. (Have to have one to move on to the other. Think laying foundation, then putting up frame, then drywall, etc. Think pyruvate.) as INTERMEDIATE" it occur in middle process. it becomes PRODUCT of step 1 to become REACTANT of step 2 to become product end. then step 2 become reactant of step 3
Coenzymes as transporters NADH and FADH2 - because these are shuttle molecules.
Why the Electron transport chain is so effective (basic overall idea) To make large amounts of energy within the cells. more efficient ways to make ATP.
By product of glycolysis Pyruvate
By products of yeast and fermentation CO2 and ethanol
Photosynthesis taking ________ molecules and what converts to organic fuel, energy
What plants split Water and Carbon Dioxide
Energy wavelengths and how much energy is generated Wavelengths are distance between successive crests (measured in nm), determine amount of energy the ray contains (blue light has shortest wavelengths and highest energy)
Light intensity Number of photons
Importance of pigments absorb low energy light from visible spectrum (any molecule absorbs visible light)
Red light alone vs red light together Red light alone: promotes little photosynthesis. Red light Together: is more effective because there is more photosynthesis (more wavelengths)
P700 how many pathways Photosystem I, has 2 options for pathways (cyclic and non-cyclic)
P680 how many pathways Photosystem II, has one pathways
Waste products of photosystems O2
Where cyclic phosphorylation occurs. What part of the chloroplast does it occur. P700, Thylakoid membrane, Mitochondria, Chloroplasts
Why noncyclic phosphorylation is important because it makes NADPH, provides electrons to make sugars to make the most amount of energy. (supplied oxygen that allowed the evolution of all animals)
Calvin cycle, what enters and what exits (basic overall idea) Enters: CO2 Exits: Sugar (Calvin cycle is phase 2. Carbon Dioxide joins to make a bigger molecule, then splits in half. Those halves can either be converted to sugar or moved to part 3 to make ribulose bisphosphate, which captures carbon dioxide.)
Adaptations of plants to conserve H2O, CO2, photons Shut stoma to limit water loss by transpiration (limited time: build up of O2 and diminishing CO2). Stores large amounts of CO2 within cell (used in C4 plants)
CAM plants, why they are differenet CAM means crassulacean acid metabolism. Desert plants, only open stomata to capture CO2 at night only so H2O loss is minimum. Stores CO2 to use during the day
Destruction of CFCs CFC's account for 15-20% of global warming. When released, 1 molecule has 20,000x more impact on global warming than 1 single molecule of CO2
Created by: StaciSisson