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Ch. 14 Kinesiology

Types of joints

kinesiology the study of movement
joint articulation the connecting point of two bones
arthrology the study of joints
3 classifications of joints synarthroses amphiarthroses diarthroses / synovial
synarthroses joints immovable joints that lack a synovial and are held together by fibrous connective tissue
sutures (structural type of a synarthroses joint) joints where a thin layer of dense, fibrous connective tissue unites the bones of the skull
syndesmosis (structural type of a synarthroses joint) slightly movable joints where bones are connected by ligaments
gomphonses (structural type of a synarthroses joint) immovable joints in which conical process fits into a socket held in place by ligaments
amphiarthroses joints slightly movable joints connected by fibrocartilage (ex. ulna and radius or fibula and tibia)
fibrocartilage speciailized connective tissue with thick collagen fibers
diarthroses joints freely movable joints; also known as synovial joints
synovial joints freely movable joints; also known as diarthroses joints
articular cartilage connective tissue covering the ends of long bones
synovial membrane a double layer of connective tissue lines joint cavities and produces synovial fluid
synovial fluid a lubricating substance found in joint cavities
pivot joint a freely movable joint in which a bone moves around a central axis, creating rotational movement
gliding joint a freely movable joint that allows bones to make a sliding motion (Ex. carpals of the wrist and the tarsals of the ankles)
hinge joint a freely movable joint that allows flexion and extension (Ex. knee, elbow, and phalanges)
concave a half-circle-shaped indentation to a surface
convex a half-circle-shaped protrusion on a surface
condyloid or ellipsoidal joint freely movable joints that allow bones to move about one another in many different directions, but not to rotate (Ex. bones in palm of hand, fingers)
ball-and-socket joints freely movable joints in which a rounded end of one bone fits into an indented end of another bone; allows the widest range of motion
saddle joint a freely movable joint between two bones with complementary shapes; allows a wide range of motion (thumb is the only saddle joint)
Created by: allissacole