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Ch. 14 Kinesiology

Anatomical terms, planes, and movements

QuestionAnswer
medial toward the midline of the body
lateral away from the midline of the body
proximal nearest to a reference point
distal farthest from a reference point
inferior below
superior above
cranial or cephalad toward the head
caudal or caudad toward the tailbone
anterior toward the front
posterior toward the back
coronal plane or frontal plane vertical flat surface running from side to side; cutting the body into anterior and posterior sides
sagittal plane or lateral plane vertical flat surface running from front to back; cutting the body into right and left sides
axial plane or transverse plane a horizontal plane dividing the body into upper and lower parts
flexion decreases the angle between 2 bones
extension increases the angle between 2 bones
hyperextension increase the angle between 2 bones beyond the normal range of motion
abduction describes movements of the limbs; limb moves away from the mid line of the body
adduction describes movements of the limbs; limb moves toward the mid line of the body
rotation occurs when a bone turns on its axis toward or away from the mid line of the body
circumduction ability of a limb to move in a circular path around an axis. The proximal portion of the limb remains stationary, while the distal portion moves in a circle
supination movement of the radius and ulna anterior or superior; act of turning the palm upward
pronation movement of the radius and ulna posterior and inferior; act of turning the palm downward
plantar flexion extends the foot, with the toes pointing down
dorsiflexion flexes the foot, bringing the toes up toward the lower leg
inversion turns the sole of the foot inward
eversion turns the sole of the foot outward
protraction movement of a body part forward in a transverse plane (shoulders, jaw)
retraction movement of a body part backward in a transverse plane
elevation movement of a body part upward in a frontal plane
depression movement of a body part downward in a frontal plane
opposition movement of the thumb to touch each finger
Created by: allissacole