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Operating Systems

Chapter 10 Terms

QuestionAnswer
Active Partition Primary partition on the Hard drive that boots the OS. Also called System Partition
Automated System Recovery Windows Process that allows you to restore an entire hard drive, volume, or logical drive to its state at the time the backup of the volume was made
Boot Partition Hard drive partition where the Windows OS is stored.
Cluster Also Called File Allocation Unit. A group of whole sectors on a hard drive.
Compact Disc File System (CDFS) 32 bit file system for CD discs and some CD-R and CD-RW discs. See Universal Disk Format (UDF)
Complete PC Backup A utility in Windows Vista that can make a backup of the entire volume on which Windows is installed. Can back up other volumes as well.
Defragment Rearrangement of file fragments or parts on the drive so each file is stored on the drive in contiguous clusters.
Disk Cleanup A utility to delete files on a hard drive. Primarily used to help create more space on the hard drive.
Dynamic Disk A way to partition one or more hard drives so that the drives can work together to store data to increase space, provide fault tolerance, or improve performance. See RAID
Dynamic Volumes A volume type used with dynamic disks to create a single volume that uses space on multipul hard drives.
Elevated Command Prompt Window A windows command prompt window that allows commands that require administrative privilages
Extended Partition The only partition on a hard drive. Windows can have only one extended partition.
File Allocation Table (FAT) A table on a Hard drive or disk used by the FAT file system which tracks the clusters used to contain files.
File Allocation Unit See Cluster. A group of whole sectors on a hard drive.
File System The overall structure that an OS uses to name, store and organize files on a disk.
Formatting See High-Level Formatting. Process performed by Windows. Process creates boot record, file system, and root directory on a hard drive, volume, or logical drive, floppy disk, or USB drive.
Fragmented Files files that have been written to different portions of the disk so that it is not in contiguous clusters.
Globally Unique Identifier Partition Table (GUID or GPT) A partitioning system installed on a hard dive that can support 128 partitions and is recommended for drives larger than 2TB.
Hardware RAID More reliable and better performing than software RAID. Is implemented using the BIOS on the motherboard or a RAID controller card.
High-Level Format Process performed by Windows. Process creates boot record, file system, and root directory on a hard drive, volume, or logical drive, floppy disk, or USB drive.
initialization Files Text files that keep hardware and sofltware configuration information, user preferences, and application settings. Used by the OS when first loaded and when needed by hardware, applications, and users.
Logical Drives a portion or all of a hard drive. Extended partition that is treated by the OS as though it were a physical drive or volume.
Low Level Formatting Process, usually done at the factory, that electronically creates the hard drive tracks and sectors and tests for bad spots on the disk surface.
Master Boot Record (MBR) The first sector on a hard drive which contains the partition table and program the BIOS uses to boot an OS from the drive.
Master File Table (MBT) The database used by the NTSF file system to track the contents of a volume or logical drive.
Mirroring A windows XP technique to provide falut tolerance whereby one hard drive duplicates another hard drive.
Mount Point a folder that is used as a shortcut to space on another volume, which effectively increases the size of the folder to the size of the other volume.
Offline Files Files stored on the client side caching folder (CSC). Allows users to work with files in the folder when the comuter is not connected to the network.
PageFile.sys The name of the file used for Virtual Memory.
Partition A division of a hard drive that can hold a volume. Using the MBR system Widnows can support up to 4 partitions on one hard drive.
Partition Table A table, contained in the MBR, at the beginning of the hard drive that contains information about each partition on the drive.
Primary Partition A hard disk partition that can contain only one volume. In Windows a hard drive can have 3 primary partitions.
Quick Format A format procedure, used to format a hard drive volume or other drive, that does not scan the volume or drive for bad sectors: use only when a drive has been previously formatted and is healthy.
RAID (Redundant Array of Independant or Inexpensive Disks) Methods of configuring multiple hard drives into a single partition. To increase space and performance.
RAID 0 Data is written evenly across all volumes. Windows refers to this as a "Stripped Volume"
RAID 1 Data is written from one drive to a second drive. Used for fault tollerance. Windows refers to this as a "Mirrored Volume"
Registry A database that Windows uses to store hardware and software configuration information, user preferences, and setup information.
Restore Point A snapshot of the Windows system usually made before installation of new hardware or applications.
Sector On a hard drive, the smallest unit of bytesaddressable by the opperationg system and BUIOS. One sector equals 512 bytes.
Shadow Copy A copy of Open files made so that open files are included in a backup.
Simple Volume A type of volume used on a simple Hard Drive.
Slack Unused space at the end of the last cluster. Wasted free space.
Software RAID Using Windows to implement RAID, using the disk management utility.
Striping See RAID. Methods of configuring multiple hard drives into a single partition. To increase space and performance. Data is written evenly across all volumes. Windows refers to this as a "Stripped Volume"
System Image Includes the entire hard drive, or partition, in which Windows resides on
System Partition The active partition of the hard drive containing the boot record and the specific files requried to start the Windows launch.
System Protection A utility that automatically backs up system files and stores them in restore points on the hard drive at regular intervals and just before you install software or hardware.
System Restore A windows utility used to restore the system to a restore point.
System State Data Track in Windows XP files that are necessary for a successful load of the operating system.
Universal Disc Format (UDF) A connectionless TCP/IP protocol that works at the OSI Transport layer and does not require a connection to send a packetor guarantee that the packet arrives at its destination. Commonly used for broadcasting to multiple nodes on a network or internet.
User Profile A collection of user data and settings. consists of User folder and subfolders, and Ntuser.data
Virtual Memory Physical memory set aside for pagefile swapping.
Volume A primary partition that has been assigned a drive letter and can be formatted with a file system such as NTSF.
Wildcard An * or ? character used in a command line that represents a character or group of characters in a file name or extention.