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WGU IOC4 study guide


A Spanish Conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other parts of what are now the southwestern United States between 1540 and 1542 and was the first documented European to visit the Grand Canyon. Francisco Vasguez de Coronado
A Spanish Conquistador, who was in search of the Seven Cities of Cibola. Francisco Vasguez de Coronado
Spanish Conquistador who took on Montezuma in the Valley of Mexico in 1518. Hernan Cortes
Lived in Mexico. Overthrew the Aztec empires and claimed Mexico for Spain in 1521. Hernan Cortes
Landed in mainland North America (Florida) Juan Ponce de Leon
Subdued Incas in Peru Francisco Pizarro
Discovered the Pacific Ocean by crossing the isthmus of Panama in 1513 Vasco Nunez de Balboa
Spanish Explorer who set out on 3 year voyage around the world. Ferdinand Magellan
A Spanish explorer and conquistador who, while leading the first European expedition deep into the territory of the modern-day United States, was the first European to discover the Mississippi River. Hernando de Soto
First European to discover North America, in 1497. Explored East Coast of North America. John Cabot
An English privateer, navigator, slaver, and politician of the Elizabethan era. Queen Elizabeth I awarded him a knighthood in 1581. Sir Francis Drake
He was second-in-command of the English fleet against the Spanish Armada in 1588. Sir Francis Drake
Mayor of Plymouth, led the second circumnavigation trip from 1577-1580. Sir Francis Drake
Founder and leader of Jamestown Virginia. Life was saved by Pocahontas. John Smith
An English Sea Explorer and navigator in the early 17th century. He is presumed to have died in 1611 in Hudson Bay, Canada, after he was set adrift, following a mutiny. Henry Hudson
1565-1611 Explored Arctic Ocean and parts of North America. 1609-was hired by Dutch East India Co. to find the Northwest Passage. Henry Hudson
He was responsible for the attempts at colonization at Roanoke Island. First English settlement attempt in 1585 at Roanoke Island. Sir Walter Raleigh
A French explorer, who claimed what is now Canada for France. He was the first who described and mapped the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River. Jacques Cartier
1535 French Explorer who searched for a NW passage to China. Jacques Cartier
, French explorer who mapped much of Northeast of North America and started settlement in Quebec. Samuel de Champlain
"The Father of New France" Samuel de Champlain
A French explorer, who claimed the entire Mississippi basin for France. Named Mississippi basin “Louisiana” after Louis XIV. Sieur de La Salle
He explored the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada, the Mississippi River, and the Gulf of Mexico. Sieur de La Salle
What ships did Columbus used Pinta, Nina, and the Santa Maria.
Who gave the ships to Columbus Queen Isabella
Sailed for Cathay (China) in 1492 in the Nina, Pinta, and Santa Maria. Christopher Columbus
When Columbus reached the New World, he named his first landfall San Salvador(present-day Bahamas)
First person to realize that the Americas were separate from Asia. Amerigo Vespucci
America is named after this man Amerigo Vespucci
First European to sight New York Giovanni Da Verazanno
Explored Northeast America looking for Northwest Passage in 1524 Giovanni Da Verazanno
The Old and the New Worlds that resulted in this ecological revolution Columbian Exchange
The exchange of plants, animals, culture, and diseases between Europe and the Americas form first contact throughout the era of exploration Columbian Exchange
Indigenous populations existing in the Americas prior to Spanish and English explorers. Pre-colonial Civilizations
Cuzco is the capital Inca
They dominated northern Mexico Aztec
Who believed that the sacrificial victims provided strength to the sun god, Huitzilopochtli. The Aztec
Tenochtitlan is the capital of Aztec
They built Monuments and great cities-originated in the Yucatan Maya
Who scribes developed a complex writing system using glyphs (pictures)--the only complete writing system in the Americas before the Europeans came Maya
An underground chamber known as and served religious or ceremonial purposes a kiva
They are thought to be the ancestors of the Pueblo, who encountered the Spanish in the 1500s. Anasazi
the eastern and central parts of the country were dominated by several cultures Mound Builders
the earliest Mound Builders the Adena
Located in the Ohio and Mississippi Valleys and built large ceremonial mounds and predated the larger collective Mississippian culture. Adena and Hopewell
The submerged area under the Bering sea that was thought to have been a land bridge between Asia and North America. Beringia
Where did the Nez Perce tribe live Idaho/Oregon (Northwest)
Where did the Pawnee tribe live Nebraska/Platte River
Where did the Iroquois tribe live Northeast/upstate New York
Where did the Cherokee tribe live Southeast, North and South Carolina’s, Georgia, Alabama, and Tennessee
The first settlers of the Americas. Nomadic hunter groups Paleo Indians
Who settled on the Gulf Coast Olmecs
Consisted primarily of forts and fur trading. Slow growth due to harsh climate, disease and strict emigration rules of the Mother Nation. Early French Colonies
1534 explored by Cartier. 1608 founded by Champlain Quebec
1682 explored by La Salle, Cavelier, and de Tonty claimed the area for France. (La Salle named the area Louisiana) Mississippi Valley
1664 English took over and awarded New Netherland to James Stuart (Duke of York). Early Dutch Colonies
Settled for many desperate reasons including religious freedom and commerce, trade, and as penal colonies. Early English Colonies
1585 first attempted English settlement, led by Sir Walter Raleigh, colony was lost in 1590. Roanoke
Founded in 1607, the first permanent English settlement in North America. Named in honor of the king. Built by Virginia Company Jamestown
Name five reasons Jamestown failed lack of food, Indian attacks, malaria/disease, concentrated on looking for gold, and leader did not respond to challenges of the wilderness.
Was formed with a charter from King James I in 1606 Virginia Company
What company was responsible for establishing Jamestown settlement. Used indentured settlers and started the headright system. Virginia Company
In 1606, King James I authorized groups set up as joint-stock companies to colonize North America. The London Company and the Plymouth Company
Leader who tried to get Jamestown started. He was saved by Pocahontas John Smith
Who married Pocahontas and introduced tobacco John Rolf
Who was a young daughter of (Wahunsunacock) the Powhatan chief, served as a valuable intermediary between the settlers and the tribe members. Pocahontas
Who marries John Rolfe, and saves John Smith from execution. Pocahontas
An English settlement on the east coast of North America in the 17th century. Settled by the Puritans, who arrived in great numbers between 1630 and 1640, dominated the region. (1630 Founded by Puritans led by John Winthrop) Massachusetts Bay Colony
Who were religious dissenters exiled from Massachusetts Bay colony. They took up residence with their followers in Rhode island Roger Williams and Anne Hutchinson
The landing site of the Mayflower and pilgrims Plymouth
The oldest municipality in New England Plymouth
Why the puritans leave England?(and three leaders) They were upset with the church and King James(Jon Robinson, William Brewster, and William Bradford).
Who wanted to eliminate all unscriptural elements from the church, fled England in 1630, on the Mayflower and founded Massachusetts Bay Colony. Puritans
What was the agreement among the Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower in 1620 to create a civil government at Plymouth Colony Mayflower Compact
What act is freedom of religion in Baltimore to anyone professing to believe in Jesus Christ Toleration Act
Resulted from the persecution of the puritan in the 1600s Great Migration
Two New England colonies that were founded by those fleeing the Puritans’ religious intolerance were Connecticut and Rhode Island
The members of the religious group that founded Plymouth Colony were known as Pilgrims
Another name for Pilgrims Separatists
A term used to describe the puritan’s beliefs which included duty, godliness, hard work, and honesty. New England Way
1632 founded by George and Celcius Calvert (Catholics) committed to Religious Toleration, but had many difficulties. Maryland
founder of Maryland Colony, 1632, Roman Catholic. Father and son. George and Celcius Calvert
Catholic churches that take lead and direction from the Pope in Rome Roman Catholicism
Maryland and Virginia also called Chesapeake colonies
What helped shape the European settlement of Virginia and Maryland in 1600s Climate/land
1663 Land grants awarded to several loyal proprietors, Cooper persuaded investments and sent over 300 colonists Carolina
Barbados became over populated and many migrated to Carolina, bringing slaves and plantations. Caribbean connection
Land that was awarded to several proprietors for their loyalty during the French wars. Land grants
1682 founded by Quakers led by William Penn, sought simplicity, equality, and inner light. Primary export was grain. Pennsylvania
Founded the Pennsylvania colony. Committed Quaker. William Penn
Who received the land from Charles II as settlement of a debt the king owed to his father. William Penn
Members of radical religious group, formally known as the Society of Friends, that rejected formal theology and stressed each persons inner light, a spiritual guide to righteousness. Quakers
Granted to Sir George Cateret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton by James II, Duke of York. Having two landowners caused much confusion to the growing colony. New Jersey
Founded by Roger Williams in 1636 Rhode Island
The Dutch founded New Netherland
The New Netherland made-up New York and New Jersey
1732 founded by General Oglethorpe as a military establishment and refuge between Carolina and the Spanish in Florida. Georgia
founder of Georgia, Philanthropist and also banned slavery in the colony, but the prohibition was lifted in 1750. He intended the colony to be a refuge for English debtors. A British general. General Oglethorpe
System of land distribution in which settlers were grated a fifty-acre plot of land from the colonial government for each servant or dependent they transported to the New World. The system encouraged the recruitment of a large servile labor force. Headright system
Individuals who agreed to serve a master for a set number of years in exchanged for the cost of boat transport to America. Indentured servitude
Who was the dominant form of labor in the Chesapeake colonies before slavery. Indentured servitude
Had qualities of centralized governmental control, military conquest, and religious missionary efforts. Spread quickly through Latin and South America and held many outpost through the North American West. Early Spanish Colonies
Florida, California, Texas, and parts of the American West was part of New Spain
Sixteenth-century Spanish adventurers, often of noble birth, who subdued the Native Americans and created the Spanish empire in the New World. Conquistadores
Spanish settlers propelled by a desire to convert Native Americans to Christianity and to find gold Conquistadores
The overthrow of the Aztec and Incan empires by the Spanish forces. Spanish Conquest
An exploitative labor system that rewarded conquistadores in the New World by granting them local villages and control over native labor Encomienda System
1494-divides land up between Spain (New World) and Portugal (Africa) Treaty of Tordesillas
Used to describe Spaniards oppression of Native Americans Black Legend
Sixteenth-century religious movement to reform and challenge the spiritual authority of the Roman Catholic Church, associated with figures such as Martin Luther and John Calvin. Protestant Reformation
The author of "Voyages" an entrepreneurial vision of English settlement in the New World. Richard Hakluyt
It was a document read to natives declaring that Jesus Christ, and that the pope had power to rule over all the earth Requerimiento
What were the reasons American colonies declared independence Conflicts between colonies and England, violated compact between colonists and Britain, wanted to separate from England right to liberty and pursuit of happiness.
What was the Missouri Compromise An agreement that was passed in 1820-said Missouri could be a slave state but the rest of Louisiana Purchase was to be free.
What was also known in America as the French and Indian War The Seven-Year War
Worldwide conflict (1756-1763) that pitted Britain against France for control of North America. With help from the American colonists, the British won the war and eliminated France as a power on the North American continent. The Seven-Year War
an order in which Britain prohibited its American colonists from settling west of the Appalachian Mountains Proclamation of 1763
What is the Sugar Act 1764 imposed a tax on foreign sugar and molasses, and wine, cloth and other goods brought into the colonies.
What is the Stamp Act 1765 it required a stamp, or watermark, on virtually all paper and paper products sold in the colonies: newspapers, deeds and other legal documents, diplomas, licenses, passports,even playing cards to show that tax was paid on that product.
Meeting of colonial delegates in New York City in October 1765 to protest the Stamp Act, a law passed by Parliament to raise revenue in America. Stamp Act Congress
1767- a series of laws passed by Parliament that suspended New York’s assembly and established taxes on good brought into the British colonies (The laws imposed duties on tea, lead, glass, and dyes for paint.) Townsend Duties
What is the Declaratory Acts 1766 which reasserted the power of Parliament to govern the colonies as it saw fit
the four pieces of legislation passed by Parliament in 1774 in response to the Boston Tea Party were meant to punish the colonies Coercive Acts
Also known as the Coercive Acts Intolerable Acts
1773 gave the company a monopoly on tea sales to the North American colonies and greatly reduced the tax on the high-quality tea.(gave the British East India Company control over the American tea trade, taxing the colonists for British tea) Tea Act
extended the southern boundary of the province to the Ohio River and granted full religious freedom to Catholics Quebec Act
Who were in Boston, led by Samuel Adams, rallied support for anti-tax sentiment with pamphlets and protests. Colonial merchants signed non-importation agreements, which required them not to buy or sell British goods. The Sons of Liberty
1770 -A violent confrontation between British troop and a Boston mob on March 5, 1770. Five citizens were killed when the troops fired into the crowd. The incident inflamed anti-British sentiment in Massachusetts Boston Massacre
A series of commercial restrictions passed by Parliament intended to regulate colonial commerce in such a way as to favor England’s accumulation of wealth. Navigation Acts
In response to a British attack on an American warship off the coast of Virginia, this 1807 law prohibited foreign commerce. Embargo Act
1773—Sons of liberty organized a revolt against the Tea Act dumping 342 chests of tea into Boston Harbor Boston Tea Party
Closed Boston ports to trade until destroyed tea was paid for. The Boston Port Act
revoked the colony’s charter, forbade town meeting (except from British governor) Massachusetts Government Act
required to provide quarters for British soldiers Quartering Act
Revolutionary tract written by Thomas Paine in January 1776. It called for independence and the establishment of a republican government in America. Common Sense
The cause of the war was tea, sugar, and stamp act. 1775-1783, The 13 colonies were trying to break-off from British rule. Lexington and Concord were the first 2 battles of the war The Revolutionary War
What legislation angered American colonist to the point that John Adams remarked, "The pot was set to boil" Stamp Act
What describes the impact of the battle at old north bridge in concord, MA, in 1775. Occurred in Lexington in the morning but it is not known whether a soldier of the British army or a colonial militiaman fired the first shot. “The shot heard round the world”
The Minutemen of this small town were warned of British troop movement by Paul Revere and met the British in the first conflict of the Revolutionary War. What war? Lexington Battle
The “shot heard round the world” was fired at Lexington
April 19, 1775, first shots fired between British army and American Militia. Lexington Battle
To disarm the protesters in Massachusetts, General Gage decided to seize the guns and ammunition stored in Concord
The site of the camp of the American Continental Army over the winter of 1777-1778 in the American Revolutionary War Valley Forge
Last Virginia battle in the American Revolution, British surrendered. Battle of Yorktown
The last major land battle of the Revolutionary War. Cornwallis surrendered along with 8,000 troops Siege of Yorktown
A meeting of delegates from twelve colonies in Philadelphia in 1774, the Congress denied Parliament authority to legislate for the colonies, condemned British actions toward the colonies, & created the Continental Association. First Continental Congress
This meeting took place in Philadelphia in May 1775, in the midst of rapidly unfolding military events. It organized the continental Army and commissioned George Washington to lead it, then began requisitioning men and supplies for the war effort Second Continental Congress
Ratified in 1781, this document was the United States’ first constitution, providing a framework for national government. The articles sharply limited central authority by denying the national government any taxation or coercive powers. Articles of Confederation
July 4th, 1776--13 colonies declaring their independence from British rule. Written by Thomas Jefferson Declaration of Independence
Formally ended the America Revolutionary war between Britain and the 13 colonies of the United States. Transferred all land east of the Mississippi (excluding Florida) to the colonies. Treaty of Paris
Vice President of Jefferson. Third VP (tied with 73 electoral votes) Dueled Hamilton 1804 and killed him and when he left Washington, he became involved in treason and was arrested. Aaron Burr
The midnight ride “the British are coming, the British are coming" 1735-1818 American silversmith and patriot. A prosperous and prominent Boston silversmith, who helped organize intelligence and alarm system to keep watch on the British military. Paul Revere
French officer who fought for America in Revolutionary War. He Participated in the Continental Congress and served under George Washington at the Battle of Brandywine and at Valley Forge. He also had a part in the final battle of the war, Yorktown. General LaFayette
Who argued that people have natural rights - life, liberty, and property John Locke
4th President (1809-1817) Involved in Philadelphia Convention in 1787. James Madison
Which President was the principal author of the document. In 1788, he wrote over a third of the Federalist Papers, still the most influential commentary on the Constitution. James Madison
the 5th president of the U.S. (1817-1825). Acquisition of Florida (1819) James Monroe
Which President dealt with the Missouri Compromise (1820), in which Missouri was declared a slave state James Monroe
Which President admitted Maine in 1820 as a free state James Monroe
What was Declaring U.S. opposition to European interference in the Americas, as well as breaking all ties with France remaining from the War of 1812. Then Monroe Doctrine
Who was One of the founding fathers of the USA, Negotiated the Treaty of Paris (1783) Ambassador of France (1776-1785) helped draft the Declaration of Independence. Benjamin Franklin
Who inventor – lightning rod, the glass harmonica, the Franklin stove, bifocal glasses, and flexible urinary catheter Benjamin Franklin
1st President (1779-1797) Commanded the Continental Army, determined Presidential role and term limits George Washington
2nd president of U.S. (1797-1801) after serving as the 1st vice president for 2 terms John Adams
Which President felt that one mark of a free society was the ability of anyone accused of a crime to have the benefit of good legal counsel John Adams
Which President was Massachusetts delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, author of the Constitution for the state of Massachusetts. John Adams
Who was the leader of the Boston Sons of Liberty urged colonists to resist British control and organized committees of correspondence in Boston. Samuel Adams
Who was the President of the MA senate-“Father of the American Revolution” proposed the meeting of the continental Congress and signed the Declaration in 1776. Samuel Adams
Who was the American Revolutionary-leader of the “Green Mountain Boys” who were battling NY over New Hampshire land grants. Pushed for recognition of Vermont as a state. Ethan Allen
Who wrote the pamphlet Common Sense which was the first published call for an end to British rule of the American colonies. Thomas Paine
Which President commissioned Lewis and Clark's exploration of the Louisian Purchase Thomas Jefferson
What exploration of the Far West brought back a wealth of scientific data about the country and its resources. Lewis and Clark expedition
What was the notions that people are self-sufficient and survive and thrive because of their own choices and energy are important in rural regions Jeffersonianism
Which President was able to reduce the national debt by a third, confront the extortionist Barbary Pirates Thomas Jefferson
In this 1803 landmark decision, the Supreme Court first asserted the power of judicial review by declaring an act of Congress, the Judiciary Act of 1789, unconstitutional. (Unconstitutional to force appointments) Marbury v. Madison
War between Britain and the United States. U.S. justifications for war included British violations of American maritime rights, impressments of seamen, provocation of the Indians, and defense of national honor. War of 1812
7th president of the U.S. (1829-1837). He was military governor of Florida (1821) Andrew Jackson
Which President authorized Trail of Tears and the Indian Removal Act Andrew Jackson
What was in 1838-1839 when the Cherokee were forced to evacuate their lands in Georgia and travel under military guard to present-day Oklahoma. ¼ of the 16,000 migrated died en route due to exposure and diseases. Trail of Tears
1830-The Act that authorized the president to negotiate treaties to purchase tribal lands in the east in exchange for lands further west, outside of existing U.S. state borders. Indian Removal Act
Which events fueled pre-civil war conflicts over slavery Fugitive slave act, Presidential election of 1860, Kansas-Nebraska Act-Bleeding Kansas, Dred Scott case
Which President served during the civil war and ended slavery Abraham Lincoln
What was in January 1863- legally freeing all African American slaves living in the Confederate states. Emancipation Proclamation
What war was North against the South (non-slaves-states v. slaves states) Civil War
What was 1863-Lincoln’s speech where he defined American democracy, sanctified the war for the Union, and described America as “a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal” Gettysburg Address
26th President of the U.S. Youngest president in history (42) to become president after McKinley died from a gunshot wound that was a result of an assassination attempt Theodore Roosevelt
What war armed military conflict between Spain and the U.S. that took placed between April and August 1898, over the issues of the liberation of Cuba. Spanish American War
On December 10, 1898, the signing of what Treaty gave the U.S. control of Cuba, the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and Guam Treaty of Paris
What was offered for $10 million for a fifty-mile strip across the isthmus. Colombia refused, and then agreed when Roosevelt sent battle ships Panama Canal
Which President purchased the Panama Canal Theodore Roosevelt
What was this called: International negotiations backed by the threat of force. The phrase comes from a proverb quoted by Theodore Roosevelt, who said that the United States should “Speak softly and carry a big stick.” “Big Stick” diplomacy
What act strengthen the powers of the interstate commerce Hepburn Act of 1906
What was aimed at helping middle class citizens Square Deal
What President when it came to WWI he wanted to remain neutral but warned the Germans they would be held accountable for any loss of American lives Woodrow Wilson
Why did Wilson finally entered WWI when the Germans decided to go back on the pledge to stop sinking merchant ships without warning.
January 1918 speech delivered to Congress. Intended to assure the country that WWI was being fought for a moral cause and for postwar peace in Europe. Fourteen Points
This form of diplomacy proposed by Wilson stated that America should not get involved with foreign affairs. This idea, however, was changed throughout WWI and its main ideas were objected. Moral diplomacy
What war was sparked when the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and his wife by Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia in June 1914. WWI
What was the league that was the keystone of Wilson's peace plan, as it would provide a forum for countries to resolve international conflicts diplomatically League of Nations
Which President handled the depression by creating New Deal programs and was elected to 4 terms Franklin D. Roosevelt
What was FDR’s program of legislation to combat the Great Depression. It included measures aimed at relief, reform, and recovery. New Deal
What was a sequence of programs FDR initiated between 1933 and 1936 with the goal of giving work (relief) to the unemployed, reform of business and financial practices, and recovery of the economy during the Great Depression. Second New Deal
What war was September 1939, Adolf Hitler's invasion of Poland provoked declarations of war from Great Britain and France, and the U.S. began sending aid to their cause. WWII
Which President used the first atomic bomb Harry S. Truman
On which two city's did the first use of atomic bomb-1945- Result – Japan announced its surrender to the Allied Powers, signing the Instrument of Surrender on September 2, officially ending the Pacific War and therefore WWI. Hiroshima and Nagasaki
What was On July 26, 1948, President Truman issued Executive Order 9981 establishing equality of treatment and opportunity in the Armed Services. Desegregating the military
What was Dwight Eisenhower in WWII 5 Star General in U.S. Army
Which President In 1956, signed the Federal-Aid Highway Act, which authorized the Interstate Highway System Dwight D. Eisenhower
When was Alaska & Hawaii admitted to statehood and what President amitted them 1959 and Dwight Eisenhower
Term to warn about the danger of massive defense spending and the close relationship between the armed forces and the industrial corporations that supplied their weapons. Military industrial complex
What war was U.S. and Soviet Union-conflict of powers- political, economical and ideological. Cold War
What President challenged scientist to send a man to the moon by the end of the decade John F. Kennedy
In 1962, Khrushchev began secretly sending Cuba 42,000 Soviet troops and a number of long-range nuclear missiles Cuban Missile Crisis
Which president enacted policies providing political, economic, and military support for the unstable French-installed South Vietnamese government, sent 16,000 military advisors and U.S. Special Forces to the area. John F. Kennedy
An unsuccessful attempt by United States-backed Cuban exiles to overthrow the government of the Cuban dictator Fidel Castro. Bay of Pigs Invasion
Which President started sending armed forces into Vietnam and had the Great Society program Lyndon B. Johnson
What were the Great Society Programs supplied federal funding to school districts, set up a program for disadvantaged preschoolers, provided for federal intervention to protect African American registration and voting in 6 states, set up an insurance program for people over 65 years old
Which President initiated diplomatic opening to China Nixon
What incident was it when several men were caught breaking into the Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate Hotel in Washington, D.C. The burglars were linked to a Nixon fundraising organization called the Committee to Re-elect the President Watergate
Who emerged unscathed from the Watergate scandal, and maintained his powerful position when Gerald Ford became President. Henry Kissinger
The day of what president's presidential inauguration in 1980 52 U.S. hostages were released after 444 days of captivity in Iran. Ronald Reagan
What President hastened the end of the cold War and reduced federal economic control. Ronald Reagan
In who's version of supply-side economics, the reduction of taxes was supposed to stimulate the economy through the eventual trickle-down of wealth from the upper to the lower classes. Reagonomics
Who was the first governor of the Puritan colony in Cape Cod William Bradford
Created by: ldepaepe
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