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Graphic Design II

Quiz #1 - Chapters 1, 2, and 5

QuestionAnswer
What role did symbols play in early written communication? Often written on papyrus, symbols were used along with words as the writing system for ancient Egyptians called hieroglyphics.
What is the cuneiform and how was it used? A written language that evolved from pictograms to a linear style and then carved into clay with a reed stylus. The clay tablets were sun dried or baked in kilns and served as a record of ancient cultures. It was the first step of what became the alphabet
What form of written communication existed during the Middle Ages? Hieroglyphics and Cuneiform. Cuneiform evolved from pictograms, to a manageable number of characters which would become the first alphabet for the Greeks. Hieroglyphics were used by the Egyptians and emerged before Cuneiform
How did Johann Gutenberg influence publishing? He invented movable type which he used in a crude press which was a converted wine press. Among his publications was the Bible.
What is a gravure? (or commercial form of “intaglio” printing) Dating back to 15th century Europe, it is a printing process that involves etching an image onto the surface of a plate which is then inked and wiped clean. Still used today in printing postage stamps and publications in large quantities.
What form of printing was used most often from the 1600s to the early 1900s? Letterpress
What is offset lithography? A printing process that invented in 1905 by Ira Rubel. It has become the most common method for printing publications over the last 50 years.
What role did Cipe Pineles play in editorial design? a magazine art director who, along with others, helped New York City become an influential design and publishing community
How has phototypesetting affected publication design? In the 1960s it provided a fast, flexible, ad inexpensive means of setting type and was ideal for offset lithography printing that was becoming popular at the time.
What role has the computer played in publication design? It advanced the ability of designers to manipulate text and imagery
Name four goal categories Inform Persuade Sell Entertain
What are demographics and what do they mean in publication design? (Also termed _____________ in the class PDF) Audience Driven Design - meaning the publication should be appropriate for its audience and reflect their beliefs and aesthetic preferences
What is venue and why is this important to publication design? (Two key words to remember) It is where a publication will be VIEWED and READ. It can affect the design, in the marketplace the cover must communicate quickly what the publication is about
What are six design principles that help support a publication’s communication goal? Hierarchy Balance Proximity Rhythm/Repetition Scale Unity/Variety
What is hierarchy and why is it important in a layout? Determines which element will be dominant in a design
What is the difference between symmetric and an asymmetric balance? Symmetric balance is achieved with identical elements on either side of a vertical axis. Asymmetrical balance is achieved when positive and negative space balance each other.
What is proximity and why is it important? The placement of visual elements in a layout. The space between affects the relationship and degree of genetic tension or visual interest.
Rhythm, pattern, and texture are all aspects of __________ Repetition
What is scale and how is it often used? Variation in size of visual elements used to create a sense of depth
Why are unity and variety important in creating a harmonic design? Unity uses design elements that are similar and varying them creates visual interest
What is figure ground ambiguity? (PDF: ________ exists as figure and ground) Shape. The ambiguity creates interest when the viewer isn’t sure which shapes are foreground or background
What aspects of type allow it to work in a layout as a design element? (PDF: looking for 3 specific ways) Serves as LINE, SHAPE, and TEXTURE
What is a grid and how does it function in a layout? GUIDES and ORGANIZES the alignment of elements in a layout and provides UNITY and FLOW
What is proportion and what is a proportional system? An example of a proportional system is ____________ How a page is segmented - How a grid will be developed - Golden Mean
Why is a grid important to a publication’s design? Structure and unity
What is a margin, column, and gutter and how do they function in a page design? Margins are a frame of negative space around the “live” area in the layout Gutters are the space between columns and pages Columns contain the text and imagery, or “meat” of the article
How do horizontal lines work as alignment guides in a publication’s grid? They help with aligning headings and page numbers, as well as formatting margins
For maximum legibility, what is the optimum number of typographic characters in a line of type? 25 to 50 characters
Name three ways to create typographic hierarchy through contrast Bigger Bolder Color
What are some typographic treatments that can be used to make long passages of text more user friendly? (Know what each are as well!) Subheads Initial Caps- First letter of first word made larger, bolder, italicized, etc… Adding Rules Setting text in bold Ornaments
What do the terms “justified,” “flush left,” and “flush right” mean? Justified - aligned on both left and right sides Flush Left - aligned on a left vertical axis while ragged on the right axis Flush Right - aligned on a right vertical axis while ragged on the left axis
What is a widow or orphan? Isolated pieces of text either at the end of a column, or in a single line at the top of a new column.
What is a bleed? an image or element on a page that extends beyond the grid and margin, and off its edge
The earliest Roman typefaces were designed by who? When? Nicholas Jensen - 1470s
The first printed version of the Declaration of Independence was set in what typeface? Caslon
What magazine printed the first halftone reproduction of a photograph on its front page? when? The New York Graphic - 1880
Computer technology allowed advances in typographic manipulation which was highlighted by David Carson’s experiments in what magazines? Beach Culture and Ray Gun
Publication designer Herb Lublin also became known for _______ in the 1960s thanks to tech advances in typesetting Designing fonts
Zuzana Licko of _________ magazine pioneered type design with her introduction of _______ in the 1980s. Emigre - fonts
Designer April Greiman was one of the first to experiment with _______ as computer technology advanced. Imagery
A ______ is a path connection two or more points. When a viewers gaze is directed by alignment of elements it creates _________ Line - Implied Line
List 5 design elements Shape Line Color Type Imagery
Color can be a powerful means of communicating ________ and can be a useful ___________ device in publication design Emotion - Unifying
While not a formal element of design, __________ can function as a design element in a page and page layout Imagery
Modular grids allow ___________ in a page layout versatility/flexability
Four guidelines for directing eye movement in a layout are Position/Placement Scale Contrast Implied Direction
The number of columns in a grid can be determined by what factors? Page Format/Size Page Orientation Publication’s Function Publication’s Goal
Typography aids ___________ and _____________ in a layout. hierarchy and organization
When working with ragged-right justified columns of text, an aesthetic problem that can arise is the _____ rag
When working with justified columns of text, an aesthetic problem that can arise are white spaces between words that vertically align in what are known as _____________ rivers
Paragraph indents need to be in proportion to what? The column’s width
Adding ________ to columns of text can make it appear less dense and more reader friendly. Leading
Strategically placed images combined with type can be used to do what? Support eye movement and guide a reader through the page or spread
When placing visuals in a layout, you can use the ________ and ________ of adjoining text as a guide. Baseline and x-height
When typographic hierarchy is applied to a page layout: what is the introductory copy above the title/headline called? What is the line that credits the author called? Lead-in (or the deck) The byline
Created by: btbell812