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A/P Test #1

Test questions for Anatomy and Physiology Test #1

QuestionAnswer
What happens during Anaphase? Separates daughter chromosomes and moves away from each other.
What is the start codon? AUG
What is Anatomy and Physiology? The structure and function of the human body.
How can structures be organized for study? By hierarchical level or by functions. (ex. Plasma membranes, electrons, protons, neurons, etc.)
What does the Parietal layers do? Lines the body wall.
What does the Visceral layers do? Surrounds the organs.
What/where is the serous space? It is filled with fluid and located between the layers.
What are the three groups of membranes? Periodical (heart), Pleural (lung), and Peritoneal (abdominal).
What are the Planes of Divisions of the body? Sagittal Plane (sideways), Coronal Plane (Front and back), and Transverse Plane (horizontal).
How do human bodies reproduce? Division of cells and production of offspring
Water always moves to __? Dilute. A living cell has limits to how much water can enter it. Water can also leave a cell, causing the cell to shrink. Too much water in a cell with cause it to burst.
What are the 4 tissue types? Connective, nervous, epithelial, and skeletal.
What does squamous mean? Thin and small.
What is a Simple Squamous? Details? located in the kidneys, lining of heart, air sacs of lungs, lymphic vessels. general function is secretion, filtration. Special feature is the nuclei.
What is a stained tissue? To enhance contrast, although artifacts (distortions) detract from what the sample looks like in living tissues
What is a fixed tissue? Tissue that is preserved with solvent
What is a sectioned tissue? Tissue that is cut into slices thin enough to transmit light or electrons
What is a cubonial cell? A cell that is cube shaped.
Simple Columnar Epithelium: One layer of tall cells with round to oval nuclei; may contain mucus-secreting goblet cells. Provides absorption; secretion of mucus, enzymes, and other substances. Lines the digestive tract, gallbladder and excretory ducts of some glands.
Simple Cubonial Epithelium: Single layer of cube-like cells with large, sphere shaped nuclei. Secretion and absorption. Located in the kidney, ducts and secretory portions of small glands, and the surface of the ovaries.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium: Single layer of flattened cells with central nuclei and sparse cytoplasm; simplest of the epithelia; allows materials to pass by diffusion and filtration in sites where protection is not important. Found in kidneys, lungs, lining of heart, blood vessels.
What are the Endocrine Glands? Ductless glands. Secrete hormones. Messenger chemicals that travel through lymph or blood to the specific target organs. Target organs respond in some characteristic way.
What are the Exocrine Glands? Secrete products into ducts, can be mulicellular
What are the Unicellular exocrine glands? all produce mucin, a sugar protein that can dissolve in water to form mucus, a slimy, protective lubricating coating.
What are the 4 main classes of cartilage? Cartilage, Hyaline cartilage, Elastic cartilage, and Fibro cartilage.
What is the most common cell type? Red blood cells.
What do Mast Cells do? Initiate local inflammatory response against foreign microorganisms they detect
Isotonic solutions: Most commonly given when blood volume needs to be increased quickly
What are the two major periods of the cell cycle? Interphase and Cell Division (also known as Mitotic phase: cells divide into 2)
What is the role of RNA? associates with a set of proteins to form ribosomes. These complex structures, which physically move along an mRNA molecule, catalyze the assembly of amino acids into protein chains.
What are the 2 main active transport membrane processes? Active transport and vesicular transport
What causes diffusion? Which way are they moving? The colliding of molecules. They are moving from high to low concentration, which is down their concentration gradient.
What is the concentration gradient? The difference between the high and low concentration
What is equilibrium? When the molecules are evenly distributed. (but still moving)
What is a process referred to as? A transcription
What are the 3 stages in the translation process? Initiation, Elongation, and Termination.
Hydrostatic pressure: Pressure of water inside of a cell pushing on the membrane
What is Osmosis? Diffusion of a solvent such as water through a specific channel protein (aquaporin) or through the lipid bilayer
What are the 3 types of muscle? Skeletal, Smooth, and Cardiac.
Is skeletal muscle voluntary or involuntary? Voluntary.
Where is Smooth muscle located? Around hollow organs. (Ex. Intestines)
What is the function of muscle? To contract.
What is the function of Nerve Cells? Transmit impulses from sensory receptors and to effectors.
What does Avascular mean? Fewer blood vessels.
How many layers (strata) does Thick Skin contain and where is it located? It contains 5 layers and is found in high abrasion areas. (Ex. Hands and feet)
What are the 4 stages of mitosis? Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase and Telophase.
What is Apoptosis? Also known as programmed cell death, causes certain cells to neatly self destruct. (Ex. Cancer cells, infected cells, old cells)
What is Hyperplasia? Accelerated cell growth that increases cell numbers when needed.
What is the function of muscle? To contract.
What do Nerve Cells do? Transmit impulses from sensory receptors and to effectors.
Periodium: Covering of the heart.
What are the 3 main types of skin cancer? Melanoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.
Most skin tumors are __. Benign (not cancerous and do not spread).
Sweating can cause__ and __ loss. salt and water loss.
Chemical Barrier Secretes many chemicals such as sweat, antimicrobial defensen.
Acid Mantle: Low pH of skin retards bacterial multiplication
Protection: Skin is exposed to microorganisms, abrasions, temperature extremes and harmful chemicals.
What are the 3 barriers of skin protection? Chemical barrier, physical barrier, and biological barrier.
What is a true function of melanocytes? They produce melanin.
What is a true function of carotene? It can be converted to vitamin A for vision. (Ex. Carotene is in carrots)
What are two facts about Stratum Lucidum? It contains keratinocytes and is only found in thick skin (Hands, feet, high abrasion areas.)
What are two facts about Dendritic cells? They are star shaped macrophages and are in the epidermis.
What is pallor? When your skin turns pale/white due to fear or from being scared.
What are two facts about erythema? It is due to increased blood flow and makes the skin pink or red.
What is Alopecia? Thinning hair/balding.
Sudoriferous Glands: Found on almost all skin surfaces; they can be enocrine glands, aprocrine glands or merocrine glands.
What are the main functions of skin? The skin serves as a barrier. Temperature regulation, protection, cutaneous sensations, melanin, and the chemical, biological and ohysical barriers.
What is melanin? Protects the skin from UV damage.
Physical Barrier: Flat, dead ketanizised cells of stratum corneum, surrounded by glycolipids, block most water and water soluble substances.
Biological Barrier: Epidermis contains eating cells, Dermis contains macrophages, DNA can absorb harmful UV radiation, converting it to harmless heat.
How much noticeable sweat can the body produce? 12 Liters of noticeable sweat per day.
Skin makes__, which aids in natural turnover of collagen to prevent wrinkles. Collagenase.
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium: Single layer of cells of differing heights; nuclei seen at different levels; may contain goblet cells. Secretes substances, particularly mucus. Located in male sperm if nonciliated; cilitated lines the trachea, most of the upper respiratory tract.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium: Thick membrane made of several cell layers; basal cells are metabolically active and produce more cells for the layers; service cells are flattened; the surface cells are full of keratin and dead. Protects underlying tissues. Lines mouth, vagina, throat.
Transitional Epithelium: Resembles both stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal; surface cells dome shaped or squamous like depending on organ stretch. Stretches readily for urination. Lines uterers, bladder, and part of the urethra.
Squamous means; Scale-like.
Cuboidal means: Cube-like.
Columnar means: column shaped.
What are the 4 types of macromolecules? Polysaccharide, Lipids, Proteins and Nucleic Acids.
What are the 3 types of bonds? Ionic bonds, Covalent bonds, and Hydrogen bonds.
What types of reactions are common in the body? Synthesis, Decomposition, and Exchange.
How do we measure concentration of solutions? Percent of solute in total solution;
Cells come from __. Other cells.
What are the 3 common structures of the cell? Plasma membrane, Cytoplasm, and the Nucleus.
What is the function of the nucleus? Contains genetic information (DNA) and is the site of transcription (Makes mRNA)
What are the Membrane Bound Organelles? Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum, Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum, Golgi Apparatus, Lysosome, Mitochondria, and Peroxisomes.
Mitochondria: Converts sugars into usable energy (ATP); double membrane layer; own DNA; own ribosomes; does fission.
What are the Non Membrane Bound Organelles? Ribosomes, Cytoskeleton, Centrosomes and Centrioles,
Hydrogen Bonds: Attractive force between polar covalent molecules.
Created by: bhemlepp