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A/P Test #1 Terms

Anatomy and Physiology terms for test #1

TermDefinition
Physiology Function of body parts
Responsiveness Ability to sense and respond to things that happen/feelings
Digestion Break down and absorption of food
Metabolism All chemical reactions that occur in body cells
Growth Increase in size of a body part or of an organism
Anatomical Position Up Straight
Superior Position Up (Ex. The human is superior to the dog)
Inferior Position Down (Ex. The dog bows down to the human because it is inferior)
Posterior Position Outside (Ex. The post is outside)
Anterior Position Inside (Ex. The ant is inside)
Ventral Position Belly side
Medral Middle Line (Ex. Medium is in the middle)
Lateral Lower line (Ex. Lat is Low)
Distal Farther from something (Ex. Wrist is distal from elbow. Distal is distant)
Proximal Closer to something (Ex. Prox is close)
Deep Under 1 or more layers
Element Table of individual atoms working together
Tissue Group of cells working together (Ex. Bone tissue, Muscle tissue, etc.)
Organ Tissues working together (Tissues are an ORGAN-ization) (Heart, lungs, etc.)
Populations Group of organs working together
Molecule 2 or more atoms bonded together
Hypotonic IN (contains a lower concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than are present inside the cell)
Isotonic Equal
Hypertonic OUT (the outside contains a higher concentration of nonpenetrating solutes than are present inside the cell)
Tonicity A measure of the ability of a solution to cause a change in cell shape or tone by promoting osmotic flows of water.
Chromatin Structures in the nucleus that carry the hereditary factors (genes)
DNA Replication Process that occurs before cell division; ensures that all daughter cells have identical genes.
Replication Fork The point at which the two strands of DNA are separated to allow replication of each strand
DNA Polymerase An enzyme that forms new strands of DNA and works only in one direction
Replication Bubble A portion of the DNA molecule that has opened, providing a site for two replication forks
Mitosis Process during which the chromosomes are redistributed to two daughter nuclei; nuclear division. Consists of prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
Cytokinesis The division of cytoplasm that occurs after the cell nucleus has divided
Cell The basic structural and functional unit of living organisms.
Plasma Membrane Membrane, composed of phospholipids, cholesterol, and proteins, that encloses cell contents; outer limiting cell membrane
Ribosomes Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
Gene Segment of DNA that holds the code for one polypeptide
Microscopic Anatomy Structures that are too small to be seen by the naked eye. (Ex. Cytology and Histology)
Codon 3 base sequence on mRNA
Goblet Cells A column-shaped cell found in the respiratory and intestinal tracts, which secretes the main component of mucus.
Endocrine Internally secreting fluids
Gland One or more cells that make and secretes an aqueous fluid called a secretion
Stratified Columnar A rare type of epithelial tissue composed of column shaped cells arranged in multiple layers.
Stratified Epithelial Tissues The cellular covering of internal and external surfaces of the body, including the lining of vessels and other small cavities.
Reticular Cells Spleen and bone marrow
Elastic Fibers Networks of long, thin elastin fibers that allow for stretching. Located above the heart
Apocrine Multicellular glands that release some of their cytoplasm in their secretions, especially the sweat glands associated with hair follicles in the armpits and pubic regions.
Cancer Uncontrolled cell growth.
Debridement Removal of burned skin. (Antibiotics, skin grafting, temporary covering)
Insensible Perspiration Sweat that is unnoticed.
Matter Anything that occupies space and has mass.
Elements Unique substances that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary chemical methods.
Created by: bhemlepp