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NRTC A&P Ch. 19

Fluid, Electrolyte, & Acid-Base Balance

Is hydrogen alkalinic or acidic? Acidic
On the pH scale, 0-6.9 is what? Acidic
On the pH scale, 7.1 to 14 is what? Alkalinic
On the pH scale, 7 is what? Neutral
What is homeostatic pH? 7.35-7.45
What percentage of the body's water is extracellular? 35%
What is extracellular fluid? Fluid that resides outside the cells
What percentage of the body's water is intracellular? 65%
What is intracellular fluid? Fluid that resides inside the cells
What is transcellular fluid? Extracellular fluid such as CSF (cerebrospinal fluid), synovial fluid, vitreous and aqueous humor, and digestive secretions.
What is osmosis? The movement of fluid in and out of a cell in order to reach homeostasis.
In what instances would you need to increase fluid intake? Illness, exercise, sweating
How does a high concentration inside the cell effect fluid movement? Fluid moves in to the cell
How does a low concentration inside the cell effect fluid movement? Fluid moves out of the cell
What does a diuretic do? Increase urination
What does an antidiuretic do? Decrease urination
What part of the brain controls thirst? Hypothalamus
What hormone does the pituitary gland secrete? ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
What does ADH do? Prompts the kidneys to reabsorb water and produce less urine.
When replacing fluid, you must replace water and what? Electrolytes
Severe fluid deficiency that leads to circulatory collapse is what? Hypovolemic shock
What results when the body eliminates more water than sodium? Dehydration
What results from blood loss or loss of both water and sodium? Volume depletion
A decrease in serum sodium and osmolarity causes ADH to do what? Increase
A increase in serum sodium and osmolarity causes ADH to do what? Decrease
What is osmolarity? The amount of particles in the blood.
What is the main extracellular electrolyte? Sodium
What is Tugor? Elasticity
What is tenting? The persistence of pinched skin, indicating dehydration.
Why is fluid excess dangerous? It can cause lysis, and pulmonary or cerebral edema
Dependant Edema is edema that... Is dependant to gravity.
What part of the body is effected by dependant edema? The part that is lowest.
What must be present in order for the body to create electrical impulses? Electrolytes
Which electrolyte is necessary for saltatory conduction? Sodium
What does sodium determine? Volume of total body water
Water follows what? Sodium
A decrease in plasma proteins can cause what? Edema
Why will a decrease in plasma proteins cause edema? It won't pull as much fluid from tissues so that protein concentration will not be diluted.
What are the major cations? Na+, K+, Ca+, and H+
What are the major anions? Cl-, HCO3-, and Pi
What makes an electrolyte a cation? It has a positive charge.
What makes an electrolyte an anion? It has a negative charge.
What prompts the renal tubules to reabsorb Na+? Aldosterone
What is suppressed when aldosterone is released? ADH.
What triggers the release of aldosterone? Decrease in serum osmolarity.
Na+ is ____ Sodium
K+ is ____ Potassium
Ca+ is ____ Calcium
H+ is ____ Hydrogen
Cl- is ____ Chloride
HCO3- is ____ Bicarbonate
Pi is ____ (The electrolye, not 3.14) Phosphates
Hypernatremia is an elevated what? Serum sodium level.
Hyperkalemia is an elevated what? Potassium level
Hypercalcemia is an elevated what? Calcium level
Homeostatic potassium level is 3.5-5.0 mEq/L
Calcium is needed for muscle contraction
The main intracellulcar electrolyte is Potassium
Too much potassium can do what? Stop the heart.
Calcium levels are regulated by what? Thyroid and bones.
Hypernatremia is a plasma concentration greater than... 146 mEq/L
Hyponatremia is a plasma concentration less than.... 139 mEq/L
Hypernatremia can indicates what? A fluid deficit
How is hypernatremia corrected? Increase fluid intake, body usually self-corrects.
Hyponatremia results from what? Excess body water
How is hyponatremia corrected? Excretion
What is the most dangerous electrolyte imbalance? Potassium
An increase of this electrolyte inhibits depolarization Calcium
A decrease in this electrolyte may result from diuretics, vomiting, or chronic diarrhea. Potassium
An increase in this electrolyte makes nerve a muscle cells irritable. Potassium
An increase in this electrolyte may result from hyperparathyroidism, hypothyroidism, or alkalosis Calcium
A decrease in this electrolyte makes cells less excitable Potassium
Hypercalcemia is a plasma concentration greater than 5.8 mEq/L
Hypocalcemia is a plasma concentration Less than 4.5 mEq/L
A decrease in this electrolyte may result from hypoparathyroidism, hyperthyroidism, acidosis, or diarrhea Calcium
A decrease in this electrolyte increases excitation of nerves and muscles. Calcium
Sligh deviates of blood pH can be Fatal
What do chemical buffers do? Neutralize hydrogen
True/False: Hydrogen neutralized by chemical buffers is retreivable. True.
How do chemical buffers work? Use a weak base to bind H+ ions to weak acid to release them.
What are the chemical buffer systems? Bicarbonate, phosphate, and protein.
What are the physiological buffers? Respitory and urinary.
What is the only buffer system that can get rid of hydrogen is Urinary
The lungs expel ____ to ____ pH. CO2, raise
The kidneys expel ____ to ____ pH. H+, lower
What order do buffers respond? Chemical, respiratory, urinary.
Acidosis is A blood pH of 7.34 or lower.
Alkalosis is A blood pH of 7.46 or higher.
Acidosis and alkalosis are due to Either respiratory imbalance or metabolic imbalance.
Respiratory imbalance is an imbalance in CO2
Matabolic imbalance is an imbalance in bicarbonate.
Created by: bpeters



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