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Knee Special Tests

Special TestTests for...Positive (+) Test
Varus Stress LCL laxity increased opening of joint space (at 0 degrees - damage to capsule and ligament, at 30 degrees - damage to ligament only)
Valgus Stress MCL laxity increased opening of joint space (at 0 degrees - damage to capsule and ligament, at 30 degrees - damage to ligament only)
Lachman's ACL laxity increased anterior translation of the tibia; increased laxity of the ACL
Anterior Drawer ACL laxity increased anterior translation of the tibia; increased laxity of the ACL
Slocum's anterolateral and posteromedial instability increased anterolateral (IR) and posteromedial (ER) translation
Hughston's/Jerk anterolateral instability; ACL laxity tibia subluxes anteriorly with knee at 20-30 degrees FLEX
Pivot Shift (McIntosh) anterolateral instability; ACL laxity posterior shift of the tibia going into 30-40 degrees knee FLEX; anterior shift of the tibia into knee EXT
Posterior Sag (Godfrey's ) PCL laxity, posterior joint capsule integrity, arcuate complex instability tibia sags posteriorly
McMurray's medial and lateral meniscal damage pain, clicking at the joint line
Apley's Compression meniscal damage pain with compression
Apley's Distraction ligamentous damage pain with distraction
Medial Synovial Plica symptomatic plica dysfunction reproduction of symptoms
Stutter medial synovial plica dysfunction irregular motion (stuttering) between 40-60 degrees into knee EXT
Wilson's osteochondral defects or osteochondritis dissicans pain with EXT and tibial IR that is relieved with tibial ER
Grind (Clark's Sign) deterioration of patellar articular cartilage pain under patella; grinding
Apprehension patellar subluxation/dislocaiton apprehension, pain during lateral translation of the patella
Sweep joint effusion small area of fluid accumulates on the medial aspect of the knee
Ballotable Patella joint effusion patella rebounds, "floats up" after depression
Created by: tmsavage