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WVSOM phys temp

WVSOM 1-21-09 physio temp regulation

QuestionAnswer
What does temperature affect? folding of proteins, membrane fluidity, rates of chemical and enzymatic reactions, osmolarity.
How is heat transferred from tissues/ organ to skin? convection and conduction
How is heat transferred to/ from environment to/ from body? radiation, evaporation, convection, conduction.
In response to cold you have activation of? sympathetic mediated (norepi) vasoconstriction
In response to heat you have activation of? sympathetic mediated (Ach) vasodilation and sweating
Shivering results from? loss of negative regulatory input to the posterior hypothalamic from preoptic area, hypothalamic then sends signals to the motor neurons.
How does circulation respond to heat in skin? it increases and sweating may occur
As a result of blood pooling in peripheral vessels and increase circulation to skin what happens to the central blood volume? reduced
What compensates for the reduction in central blood volume? decrease circulation to the splanchnic and liver
What is the normal body temperature? 98.6°F; 37°C
Why does the body want this normal body temperature? because it is the optimal temperature for reactions to occur in the body
Does the body deal with cold or heat better? cold
What can elevated temperature do to proteins? denature them
If you decrease the body temperature enough what can form? ice crystals which changes the osmolarity of the tissues
Can change in temperature affect membrane fluidity? yes
Are chemical reactions temperature sensitive? yes their rate depends on it
What is the set point of the core body temperature maintained by? hypothalamus
What is your set point? your bodies thermostat
Is the body the same temperature everywhere including the organs? no the organs can have different temperatures depending on how active it is and what time of day it is
What does the core temperature reflect? sum of different tissues
What affects the core body temperature? Time of day, Age, Exercise, Menstrual cycle
When is the core body temperature the lowest? early in the morning
When is the core body temperature the highest? mid day around 3 to 6 pm
What are some risk factors associated with dysregulation of temperature? Age (i. e. young, old) how well the body can fight things off, Medications (i. e. anticholinergics, antiepileptics, β-blockers) , Health (i. e. level of fitness, weight, diabetes, CVD), Environment (i. e. clothing, air movement, humidity)
In the elderly what kinds of problems can they have in regulating body temperature? they may have a lower muscle mass to generate the metabolic activity to generate heat, when you get older your sweat glands can atrophy so they cant cool themselves
Around ovulation and pregnancy how is your body temperature affected? it goes up 3 to 5 degrees due to increased metabolic activity
How does fitness play a role in regulation of temperature? if a person is more fit they can adapt to the changes in temperatures
How does being overweight play a role in regulation of temperature? adipose can act as an insulator, making it hard to dissipate heat
How does having diabetes or heart problems play a role in regulation of temperature? diabetes and cardiovascular disease can affect the blood flow to the peripheral blood vessels which affect dissipation of heat
What are some ways of transferring heat from tissue to organ? convection and conduction
What is convection? transfer of heat from tissue to blood
What does convection depend on? Rate of heat production by tissue, Temperature of tissue versus temperature of blood, Rate of blood flow through tissue
What is conduction? dissipation of heat directly across tissues to skin
Which is more affective at removing heat, conduction or convection? convection because conduction can be inhibited by adipose tissue
What are some ways of transferring heat from skin to environment and visa versa? Radiation, conduction, convection, evaporation
What is radiation? heat transfer between skin and objects in the environment
What is conduction? transfer of heat by contact with a solid object of different temp
What is convection? transfer of heat resulting from movement of a liquid or gas
Which is more affective at removing heat, liquid or air? liquid
What are some examples of evaporation from the body? sweat, respiration
The thermoreceptors in the skin is going to send axons up to? hypothalamus which is going to integrate a response, cortex so you have a conscious response to the temperature
Where are thermoreceptors located? hypothalamus, heart, pulmonary vessels, spinal cord,skin
How is cutaneous circulation involved in regulation of heat transfer? by way of Sympathetic nerves, vasodilation, vasoconstriction
What is the name of the condition in which you have an absence or reduced number of sweat glands? Anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia
People with anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia they cant do what? regulate their heat from their environment or exercise because they cant perspire
Define Anhidrotic ectoderman dysplasia? absence or reduced number of sweat glands cant regulate their heat from their environment or exercise through perspiration
What is the condition called hidromeiosis? swelling of the skin layer that will occlude the glands, this will prevent the glands from doing their job affectively.
How are the Eccrine sweat glands involved in the regulation of heat transfer? by way of Sympathetic nerves, they very numerous, but fatigue with continued exposure to heat, they increase efficiency with training
What is considered apical skin? glomulus bodies found in various parts including ears, pads of fingers and toes, nail beds.
Explain how sympathetic fibers affect apical skin? Vascular anastamoses have myoepithelial layers innervated by sympathetic fibers which when stimulated release norepi which causes vasoconstriction. Lack of stimulation causes passive vasodilation.
Explain how sympathetic fibers affect nonapical skin? stimulation of sympathetic fibers releases norepi causing vasoconstriction in the skin thus decreasing the blood flow. Vasodilation due to stimulation of sympathetic neurons and release of Ach. Ach also stimulates eccrine sweat glands.
Which plays a more primary role in heat loss, apical skin or nonapical skin? nonapical skin because it has more contact with the body
Where are glomus bodies located, in the apical or nonapical skin? apical skin
What causes vasodialation in apical skin? passive vasodialation due to lack of stimulation
What causes vasodilation in nonapical skin? active vasodilation due to sympathetic neurons releasing Ach
When dealing with the thermoregulatory response what raises the core temperature is? pyrogens that cause a raise in the set point
When dealing with the thermoregulatory response what lowers the core temperature is? heat acclimatization
What causes an error signal in the generation of signal in thermoregulation? core body temperature and the set point temperature vary
What happens when you generate an error signal in thermoregulation? if you are in cooler temperature you will try to raise the body temp if the core is to high it will try to lower the temp by getting rid of some of the heat
Behavioral thermoregulation is what? its what we are coconsciously doing to modify our body temp to the environment, exp. Seeking shade, putting on cloths, fire, air-conditioning, allows us to live where we want
Physiological thermoregulation is what? allows for the fine tuning and maintain the body temp at that constant set point
What happens to the temperature set point during a fever? the temperature set point changes
What happens to the temperature set point during exercise? the temperature set point does not change
When you have a fever it increases the set point resulting in? error signal telling the body to raise the core body temp to the new set point
When you exercise and get an error signal telling you that your core body temp is to high so what results? your body tries to dissipate heat by sweating as your body temp comes back down you stop the signals
What happens to core body temp when you exercise? you have an increase in the core body temp
How does the body respond to this increase in core body temp? increase the heat loss hopefully so the heat loss will match the heat produced
What causes a fever? pyrogens
What is an example of an external pyrogen and how does it cause the fever? microbial source which Elicit immune response causing IL-1 to create an increase PGE2, PGE2 alters temperature set point
What is an example of an internal (endogenous) pyrogen and how does it cause the fever? cytokines, Examples: IL-1, interferon γ, TNF, which Alters temperature set point
When you have an increased demand of muscle you do what to the demand of blood flow? increased demand of blood flow.
Why is there strain on the bodies system when exercising? You are generating heat because of the muscles being exercised so you increase the blood flow to the skin to get rid of the heat, which puts strain on heart
Which two systems are competing systems for that blood flow? the muscle wanting the blood to work and the skin wanting the blood to dissipate heat.
What happens as a result of having a lot of blood in the periphery? you reduce the blood in the core
Where is strain on the heart coming from when you exercise? you increase the blood on the heart due to the increased demand
How does sweating cause strain on the heart when exercising? If at the same time you are trying to regulate the temp by perspiring you are going to lose volume causing dehydration and putting a greater load on the heart
What is the bodies response for the increased blood flow to the skin and muscle during exercise? It will reduce the blood flow to the splanchnic, liver and provide more of the blood to the muscle and skin
Sometime when you have prolonged exercise you may have damage to the intestine, why? because your body has shunted the blood away from the intestine so the intestine starves for blood
How come a heat related illness occurs? The body is unable to get rid of the heat affectively and it is unable to maintain its body temperature
What are some causes of heat related illnesses? exposure to environmental heat, physical exercise, pathophysiology
How does exposure to environmental heat cause heat related illness? it impeded dissipation of heat from the body
How does physical exercise cause heat related illness? it increases heat production in the body
How does pathophysiology cause heat related illness? cause fever, can cause fluid loss, reduce perfusion of viscera, high fever can cause tissue death
What does increase in body temperature result in? increase in blood flow to the skin
Where does blood pool? in warm compliant vessels
What can fluid loss in sweat lead to? volume reduction
Reduced perfusion of viscera can lead to? Ischemia, endotoxemia, oxidative stress
When you sustain high temperatures of 105F or more what can be the result? injury to the tissues or may lead to tissue death
What are some mild heat related illnesses? miliaria rubra, heat syncope, heat cramps
What is miliaria rubra? heat rash – occlusion of the eccrine sweat gland ducts
What is heat syncope? fainting – temporary reduction in circulation due to pooling of blood in peripheral veins
What is heat cramps? skeletal muscle cramps – excessive loss of sodium in sweat
What are some examples of severe heat related illnesses? heat exhaustion, heat stroke
What is heat exhaustion? inability to maintain cardiac output resulting in collapse at rest or during exercise; most common; may be caused by dehydration
What are some symptoms of heat exhaustion? dizziness, light headedness, weakness, nausea, cool, moist skin, dark urine; core temp. may be normal or slightly elevated (101° - 104°F)
What are some treatments for heat exhaustion? apply cold compresses, have the person lie down, give fluids orally, elevate feet, use a fan to lower temperature
What is heatstroke? elevated core temperature; neurological disturbances; can cause shock, organ failure, brain damage, even death
What are some symptoms of heatstroke? fever (>104°F), confusion, irrational, dry, hot, red skin, rapid shallow breathing, rapid, weak pulse, seizures, unconsciousness
What are some types of heatstroke? classical and exertional
Where is classical heatstroke seen? seen primarily in sick, compromised individuals
Where is exertional heatstroke seen? seen primarily in apparently healthy, fit individuals
What are some treatments of heatstroke? protect airway, have person lie down, give fluids intravenously, elevate feet, use a fan to lower temperature, put in ice bath, apply cold compresses
What is Hyperthermia – malignant/Hyperpyrexia – malignant? heritable disease (autosomal dominant) that causes a fever in an individual and sever muscle contractions in response to general anaesthesia
What could be associated with Hyperthermia – malignant/Hyperpyrexia – malignant? muscular diseases
What is impaired in individuals with Hyperthermia – malignant/Hyperpyrexia – malignant and what can that impairment cause? Control of [Ca++]i in skeletal muscle impaired in these individuals, resulting in hypermetabolism and increase in core body temp
What are the symptoms of Hyperthermia – malignant/Hyperpyrexia – malignant? fever, muscle rigidity, dark brown urine, muscle aches
If left untreated what can Hyperthermia – malignant/Hyperpyrexia – malignant result in? can lead to death; recurrent episodes can cause renal failure
What are some complications with Hyperthermia – malignant/Hyperpyrexia – malignant? myopathy, rhbdomyolysis, renal failure, death
What are some types of cold related injuries? peripheral cold injuries, hypothermia, pathophysiology
What is peripheral cold injuries? injuries to extremities and exposed skin
What two categories can peripheral cold injuries be divided? nonfreezing and freezing
What are some examples of nonfreezing peripheral cold injuries and what are they? chilblain =localized inflammatory lesions on skin, Trench foot = cold-wet exposure, skin breakdown, nerve damage with increased sensitivity to pain
Give an example of a freezing peripheral cold injury? frostbite
What is hypothermia? whole body cooling
With pathophysiology cold related injuries exposure to cold temps can result in? peripheral vasoconstriction, may include underlying tissues (muscle)
With pathophysiology cold related injuries continued reduction in body temp can result in? lower enzyme activity, problems develop with clotting, respiration, cardiac function, cell injury and death due to ice crystal formation and change in osmolarity.
What is Shivering caused by? post hypo get negative regulatory input preoptic area which comes from warmth so that input will keep the shivering response in check, when exposed to cold that input is taken out causing the shivering, you have some conscious control over shivering
What is frostbite? cold damage to skin and underlying tissues
What parts of the body is most vulnerable to frostbite? hands, feet, nose, ears
When a patient is experiencing hypothermia you need to be alert for? frostbite
What will accentuate the potential for frostbite? the use of β-blockers, peripheral vascular disease, diabetes, peripheral neuropathy, Raynaud’s syndrome
What are some symptoms you may experience from frostbite? Initial sensation will be pins and needles followed by numbness. May be throbbing and aching, followed by numbness. Blisters may form, gangrene
What may happen upon thawing frostbite? burning, swelling, and reddening of the skin
What may happen if the skin has started to freeze? it may be white and remain numb.
How do you classify mild hypothermia? core body temp 32 - 35°C
What is the result of mild hypothermia? shivering; depression of CNS (apathy, irritability confusion, lethargy)
How do you classify moderate hypothermia? core body temp 28 - 32°C
What is the result of moderate hypothermia? progressive CNS symptoms (ataxia, speech and gait disturbance)
How do you classify severe hypothermia? core body temp <28°C
What is the result of severe hypothermia? voluntary muscle movement and reflexes lost, unconsciousness, decrease in cardiac and respiratory output, muscle rigidity
When you warm someone with hypothermia they are susceptible to? ventricular fibrillation, acid build up in ischemic peripheral tissues
What is ventricular fibrillation? condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly
When a person is being warmed from hypothermia, what happens as a result of acid build up in ischemic peripheral tissues as blood flow is restored? the acid load may be transferred to heart causing a transient drop in pH
Created by: hagerman