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WVSOM exercise phys

WVSOM Exercise physio lecture 1 and 2 acute CV and respiratory changes brown

QuestionAnswer
How can cardiac output be increased? heart rate, stroke volume
How can ventilation be increased? frequency of breathing, tidal volume
What can cause some variations in physiological responses to exercise? Repetition: Acute versus chronic, Amount of muscle mass involved, Intensity of effort, Duration of effort, Type of muscle contraction
What are some types of muscle contractions? dynamic = movement, static (isometric) = no movement
How can dynamic exercise be quantified? by the rate of O2 consumption
As the work rate increases what happens to the O2 consumption? you have a steady increase linearly of consumption until you reach your maximum O2 consumption level.
What happens when you reach the max O2 consumption? you start anaerobic exercise
What 3 components underlie increased VO2? Supply by lungs, Delivery by circulation, utilization by muscles
What is the equation for supply? VO2 = VE (FIO2 – FEO2)
What is the equation for delivery? VO2 = Q x (a-v O2 difference)= HR x SV x (a-v O2 difference)
What is the equation for utilization? VO2= Q x (a-v O2 difference)- reflects O2 extraction
What is the ventilatory response to exercise? It increases
What happens to cardiac output as oxygen use is increased? it will increase slightly
When does the total ventilation increases linearly at a much faster rate? as we exercise more and more.
Ventilation increases faster after? the point of anaerobic threshold
When you are still able to aerobic during exercise the line for the O2 consumption? increases linearly
When you get to the v max the respiratory rate? jumps to a very fast rate for every ml of O2 that it needs
What happens to lactic acid in blood as you are using O2? it increases slightly
What happens to the lactic acid in the blood as you reach the anaerobic threshold? blood lactate follows the respiratory pattern it skyrockets when you reach the threshold
What does lactic acid do to the rise in ventilation? it helps to increase the ventilation rate
How many phases are there in ventilation when you exercise? 2 phases
What happens to ventilation when you start to exercise? it goes up right away as your brain says to start exercising so it goes up in anticipation
When the respiratory center in your brain tells your body that you are going to start exercising to breath faster this is an example of? Feed forward
What causes the slow increase in ventilation? its thought that the body has limb mechanoreceptors or in increase in potassium may have something to do with it
Because you increase the PCO2 hypercapnia what happens? you blow off CO2
Does hypercapnia happen at higher exercise levels? no you have a slight decrease in sever exercise
If you increase respiratory rate are you going to be short in oxygen? no
Does lowering the pH acidosis cause the slow increase in ventilation? no the pH is maintained in moderate exercise
What are some other things that changes in exercise? increase in diffusing capacity up to 3X, decreased v/q inequality, and the O2 dissociation curve shifts to the right
How do you increase the diffusing capacity? recruitment and distension of capillaries
Is diffusion limiting when exercising? not usually
What happens if we shift the O2 dissociation to the right? Less affinity for oxygen so they release faster, increased CO2 pressure gradient, increased hydrogen concentration, and increased temperature
What is the result of decreased V/Q inequality? lung blood flow becomes more uniform
What is the co-ordinator for cardiovascular changes? Medullary CV center, Autonomic nervous system
What is the equation for cardiovascular changes? VO2 = Q x (a-v O2 difference)
When we do involve the sympathetics you increase what? Calcium activation and contractility
What are some changes in cardiac output changes? Heart rate increased, Stroke volume increased, have increase in cardiac output of 4-5 times
What is the equation for cardiac output? Q = HR x SV
How do we increase the heart rate from rest? initially we decrease parasympathetic tone to SA node, then we increase the sympathetic tone in heavy exercise
How do we increase the stroke volume? increase in end diastolic volume (Frank starling) as you add more volume you will make the sarcomere length an optimum of 2, and increase sympathetic activation
At rest what length does your heart muscle work at? less than 2 microns
When you increase preload you are getting the sarcomere length operation to the optimum level what happens to stroke volume? stroke volume goes up
How can you decrease stroke volume? decrease the EDV and increase the ESV
What happens when you decrease the volume of blood at the end of rest in your ventricle? Shorten the sarcomeres
What is the first thing we do in exercise? increase the end diostolic volume increase preload
How can you increase the stroke volume? increase the EDV and decrease the ESV
What are some factors that affect ESV? afterload, contractility
What are some factors that affect EDV? if a heart muscle becomes stiffer, Heart rate, also preload
What happens to stroke volume when you increase afterload? if you increase that pressure in the aorta more of its energy from a single squeeze has to be used so you have less energy for systemic so you decrease the stroke volume
What is the equation for SV? SV = EDV - ESV
What increases venous return? muscle contraction and breathing
What does the muscle pump do? displaces blood from peripheral veins to central veins
What is the respiratory pump? The difference of intrathoracic pressure sucks the blood into the right ventricle of the heart
Where is the venacava relative to the thoracic cavity? its behind the wall of the thorax, the central veins see as if they have almost the same negative pressure measured inside the lung.
What is the net effect of the muscle pump and respiratory pump? increased venous return and increased filling pressure and EDV
What happens to the muscle O2 extraction in exercise? it increases
What happens to the A-V O2 difference when you increase the muscle O2 extraction? it increases
What is the equation for VO2? VO2 = Q x (a-v O2 difference)
What do we have at the capillary muscle level in exercise? We have vasodilation and capillary recruitment in active muscle
Do we have systemic redistribution of blood in exercise? yes
What is the volume of blood at rest in the splanchnic? 1400ml/min
What is the volume of blood at rest in the Renal? 1100ml/min
What is the volume of blood at rest in the Brain? 750ml/min
What is the volume of blood at rest in the Coronary? 250ml/min
What is the volume of blood at rest in the skeletal muscle? 1200ml/min
What is the volume of blood at rest in the skin? 500ml/min
What is the volume of blood at rest in the other? 600ml/min
What is the total volume of blood circulation at rest? 5800ml/min
What is the volume of blood during heavy exercise the splanchnic? 300ml/min
What is the volume of blood during heavy exercise in the Renal? 900ml/min
What is the volume of blood during heavy exercise in the Brain? 750ml/min
What is the volume of blood during heavy exercise in the Coronary? 1000ml/min
What is the volume of blood during heavy exercise in the skeletal muscle? 22000ml/min
What is the volume of blood during heavy exercise in the skin? 600ml/min
What is the volume of blood during heavy exercise in the other? 100ml/min
What is the total volume of blood circulation during heavy exercise ? 25650ml/min
What is the percentage of blood circulation at rest in the splanchnic? 24%
What is the percentage of blood circulation during heavy exercise in the splanchnic? 1%
What is the percentage of blood circulation during heavy exercise in skeletal muscle? 86%
What is the percentage of blood circulation at rest in the skeletal muscle? 21%
How is blood redistributino achieved? through vasoconstriction
When you increase sympathetic outflow what happens? you get vasoconstriction
Where is sympatetic outflow increased during exercise? Inactive muscle, Splanchnic circulation, Renal circulation, Cutaneous circulation
Which circulation shows the greatest reduction in blood flow during exercise? splanchnic
What causes vasodilation in active muscle? Local Chemical factors & metabolites
what are some examples of Local Chemical factors & metabolites ? Bradykinin, Prostaglandins, Adenosine, Lactic acid, Carbon Dioxide, Nitric oxide
Where are the receptors for one or more of the chemical factors or metabolites located? in the smooth muscle surrounding the capillaries
What aids the muscle in O2 extraction? vasodilation and capillary recruitment
What does muscle O2 extraction involve? diffusion of O2 from capillary
Where does the O2 extraction take place? mitochondria
What does Fick’s Law determine? rate of diffusion
What is the Fick’s Law equation? VO2 = DM . (PCAP – PMITO), DM combines area, solubility, MW, Diffusion distance
What is the result of vasodilation and capillary recruitment? you get a decrease in diffusion distance because more cells are actively flushing their supply which leads to increased O2 volume
Why does mean blood pressure only raise slightly when exercising? vasodilation
What is the equation for Blood pressure? BP = CO x TPR
What happens to blood pressure during exercise? it goes up a little bit but not dramatically
The difference between sistolic and diastolic pressure is? Pulse pressure
What happens to blood pressure in dynamic exercise? you only get a small increase in mean blood pressure
What must total peripheral resistance (TPR) be doing if blood pressure is only going up a little bit? it is dramatically dropping
In static exercise vasodilation is more or less of an influence in blood pressure? less influence
Can muscle receptors contribute to cardiovascular changes? yes
What type of muscle recpetors are involved in cardiovascular changes? metaboreceptors, mechanoreceptors
What are metaboreceptors sensitive to? metabolic environment
What group does the metaboreceptors belong to? group 4 the sensory afferents
What can metaboreceptors cause a large increase in? sympathetic outflow
What do mechanoreceptors sense? mechanical environment
What group does the mechanoreceptors belong to? group 3 sensory afferents
What is the function of the barorecetors resetting during exercise? reduce HR when BP is increased
What affect does exercise have on baroreceptors? Baroreceptors reset to higher blood pressures, The baroreflex becomes less ‘potent’
What limits VO2 MAX? Limited O2 delivery by the circulation,VO2 = Q x (a-v O2 difference)
What is VO2? rate of O2 consumption
How does it change on exercise? increases linearly with work rate up to Vo2 max
What mechanisms are involved? increased ventilation, increased cardiac output, increased muscle O2 extraction
What is the main limiting factor on VO2 max? cardiac output
As maximum Q increases what happens to VO2 max? increases
When does the lung limit VO2 max? during severe exercise in athletes
When does exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia occur? decrease in saturation of O2 close to VO2 max
How do you over come exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia occur? by breathing higher O2
During excessive respiratory muscle work, how much VO2 can be consumed? up to 10-16%
Oxygen can help only when? oxygen saturation is depressed
Can muscle oxygen extraction limit VO2 max? it can have some limiting factor
What does oxygen extraction depend on before it becomes limiting? rate of O2 diffusion from capillary to mitochondria (fick’s law)
What can be accomplished with training? you increase the number of muscle diffusive capacity by increasing the number of capillaries which results in an increase in VO2 max
What parameter is normally the main limitation on VO2 MAX? cardiac output
What factors affect exercise performance? Muscle fatigue, Anaerobic threshold, VO2 MAX, Gender, Age
Muscle fatigue can limit? exercise performance
What does onset of muscle fatigue depend on? Fiber type, Accumulation of K+, lactate, increase in hydrogen concentration causing Reduction of pH, Depletion of glycogen, PCr
When does exhaustion occur more rapidly? nearer the VO2 max
What is exhaustion curve dependent on? anaerobic threshold
Is the VO2 max a perfect predictor of exercise performance? no
What does performance additionally depend on? Mechanical efficiency, Endurance at high VO2 rates, Anaerobic threshold
Structure between the bone length and bone masses and the amount of energy being used to maintain the upper body is an example of what? mechanical efficiency
Endurances at high VO2 rates are somewhat affected by? psychological, how much heart, how much pain you can tolerate
In women on average what is their VO2 max compared to males? 8-12% lower
What are some other differences in exercise performance in females compared to males? decrease in muscle mass and increase in body fat, also women have a lower hemoglobin level
Is power output for the same VO2 different in males and females? no
How do women acieve the same power output? they require working at a higher % of VO2 max
Does AT occur in women at lower or higher power outputs? lower
At any age what is the difference in the sedentary and the endurance athelete? their VO2 max is not the same
Does VO2 max increase or decrease with age? decrease
What will exercise do for a sedentary 60 year old? will increase the VO2 max
Jimmy and Bob have the same VO2 MAX, but Jimmy can run for longer when exercising maximally. Why? jimmy has a higher anaerobic threshold
How does increase in VO2 max lead to increased resistance fatigue? increase in lactate threshold
Is the respiratory system changed or unchanged by training? mostly unchanged
Does training increase or decrease VO2 max? increase
What are the cardiovascular effects of training? Maximal Q is increased, Resting HR is lowered but maximal HR is unchanged, Maximal SV increases, Modest reduction in BP
What is the equation for VO2 max? VO2 MAX = HROPT x SVOPT x (a-v O2 difference)MAX
What happens when you increase the water content of plasma? increase stroke volume and EDV but reduces hematocrit
What is sports anemia? it is reduced hematocrit
What do new capillaries and oxidative enzymes do to O2 extractions? it enhances O2 extraction
What happens to a-v O2 difference with training? it increases slightly
Increase in O2 extraction by muscle causes what? growth of new capillaries and increase oxidative enzymes
What does growth of new capillaries do? it decreases the diffusion distance and increases muscle blood flow
What does an increase in oxidative enzymes cause? an increase in oxygen pressure gradient and increase in rate of oxygen diffusion
How can training cause muscle hyprotrophy in dynamic exercise? you get enlarged ventricles and eccentric hypertrophy in the heart
How can training cause muscle hyprotrophy in static exercise? you get thickened ventricles and concentric hypertrophy in the heart
In skeletal muscle hyperplasia is what? increased number of fibers
In skeletal muscle hypertrophy is what? increased size of fibers, you get eccentric contractions
Created by: hagerman