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thermoregulation

WVSOM -- Physiology -- Thermoregulation

QuestionAnswer
Where is the set point for the core body temperature? hypothalamus
How is core temperature determined? reflects sum of different tissues
What affects core body temperature? time of day, age, exercise and menstrual cycle
What are the 4 risk factors associated with dysregulation of temperature? age, medications, health, environment
What is normal body temperature? 37 C
What does elevated temperatures do to proteins? denatures
What will a decrease in temperature lead to? ice crystal formation
Rates of chemical reactions are ____________ sensitive. temperature
What is convection with the body generating heat? transfer of heat from tissue to blood
What is conduction with the body generating heat? dissipation of heat directly across tissues to skin
What are the two ways heat is transferred from tissue/organ generating heat? convection and conduction
What 3 things determines convection? rate of heat production by tissue, temperature of tissue versus temperature of blood, rate of blood flow thru tissue
What 4 ways is heat transferred from the skin to environment (and vice versa)? radiation, conduction, convection and evaporation
What is radiation? heat transfer between skin and objects in environment
What is evaporation concerning the body? sweat, respiration
Where are the thermoreceptors? hypothalamus, heart, pulmonary vessels, spinal cord and skin
What is anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia? low amount of sweat glands
What regulates heat transfer in the cutaneous circulation? sympathetic nerves which vasodilate and vasoconstrict
What controls eccrine sweat glands? sympathetic nerves
What happens to eccrine sweat glands with continued exposure to heat? fatigue
What is hidromeiosis? A decline in the rate of sweating during exposure to heat, especially that from warm baths.
What happens with heat regulation in fever? temperature set point changes
What is the difference between fever vs. exercise? Temperature set point changes in fever whiel in exercise there is no change in temperature set point
What are the two csues of fever resulting from pyrogens? external and endogenous
What is an external source of pyrogen fever? microbial source
What alters temperature set point? PGE2
What is the enogenous cause of pyrogen fever? cytokines; IL-1 and interfernon gamma, TNF
What is the cardiovascular strain due to heat? There is peripheral pooling of blood which causes increased work on the heart. There will also be water loss which will further reduce central volume and cause a greater load on the heart.
What three things cause heat-related illnesses? exposure to environmental heat, physical exercise and pathophysiologic causes
What will exposure to environmental heat do? impede dissipation of heat
Why will physical exercise cuase heat-related illnesses? increase heat production
What are pathologic causes of heat-related illnesses? increase in body temperature causes inc. blood flow to skin, blood pools in warm, compliant vessels; fluid loss in sweat leads to volume reduction, reduced perfusion of viscera and high temperatures can result in injury and can lead to tissue death.
What are severe heat-related illnesses? heat exhaustion and heat stroke
What are 3 mild forms of heat-related illnesses? miliaria rubra, heat syncope and heat cramps
What is miliaria rubra? heat rash – occlusion of eccrine sweat gland ducts
What is heat syncope? fainting due to temporary reduction in circulation due to pooling of blood in peripheral veins
What are heat cramps? skeletal muscle cramps – excessive loss of sodium in sweat
What is heat exhaustion? inability to maintain cardiac output resulting in collapse at reast or during exercise; most common causes often by dehydration
What are symptoms of heat exhaustion? dizziness, light headedness, weakness, nausea, cool, moist skin, dark urine, core temp normal or slightly elevated (101-104)
What is heatstroke? elevated core temperature; neurological disturbances; can cause shock, organ failure, brain damage, death
What is classical heatstroke? seen in primarily in sick, compromised indivicuals
What is exertional heat stroke? seen primarily in apparently healthy, fit individuals
What are symptoms of heat stroke? fever > 104; confusion, irrational, dry, hot, red sckin, rapid shallow breathing, rapid, weak pulse, seizures and unconsciousness
What is malignant hyperthermia? heritable disease that causes a fever in an individual and servre muscle contractions in response to general anaesthesia
What are peripheral cold injuries? extermities and exposed skin injuries
What are chilblains? localized inflammatory lesions on skin
What is trench foot? cold-wet exposure, skin breakdown and nerve damage (inc. sensitivity to pain)
What are the non freezing cold injuries? cilblains and trench foot
What is a freezing injury? frostbite
What potentiates frostbite? use of beta blockers, pvd, dm, peripheral neuroptathy, raynaud’s syndrome
Created by: tjamrose