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Cell Physio 1 PP

What are the 3 main regions in a cell? Plasma membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus
What is the structure of the plasma membrane? phospholipid bilayer with proteins embedded within
What are integral proteins and what do they do? They are proteins that are embedded in the cell membrane. Most are trans-membrane, but some protrude from one side or the other. Could act as receptors.
What are peripheral proteins and what do they do? Proteins loosely attached, mainly to the cytoplasmic side. They support the cytoplasmic side of the membrane by a network of filaments.
What is Glycocalyx? a short chain of carbs (sugar) projected from the external surface of glycoproteins and glycolipids. Function in cell-to-cell binding and recognition.
What is diffusion? The movement of small, uncharged like oxygen, Co2, and fat soluble molecules across the membrane
What is active transport? Moving substance from a low to high concentration and consumes ATP/energy. Textbook says it can also be high to low, as long as the process uses ATP.
What type of molecules need active transport? Large, water soluble or charged molecule like glucose, amino acids, and ions.
What are the two types of vesicular or bulk transport? endocytosis and exocytosis
How does exocytosis work? Membrane-lined cytoplasmic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents outside of the cell, such as mucus and protein secretions from glands.
How does endocytosisi work? The cell membrane folds inward to enclose the large molecule, forming cytoplasmic vesicles. There are 3 types of endocytosis.
What are the three types of endocytosis? phagocytosis (cell eating), pinocytosis (cell drinking), and receptor-mediated endocytosis.
What is the protein responsible for for deforming the plasma membrane during endocytosis? Clathrin
How does phagocytosis work? The plasma membrane engulfs the molecule and forms a phagosome (a membranous vesicle). Phagosome mostly fuse to lysosomes for enzymatic break down of phagosome contents. White blood cells.
How does pinocytosis work? a small amount of plasma membrane encloses extracellular fluid, which contains dissolved molecules. This is the main function of cells lining the small intestine.
How does receptor-mediated endocytosis work? Specific molecules (insulin, hormones, LDL) attach to a receptor on the plasma membrane before beingenclosed in a protein coated vesicle. This vesicle then binds with a lysosome and the receptors return to the plasma membrane.
What specific type of transport do viruses and toxins sometimes use to enter cells? Receptor-mediated endocytosis.
What are the two sub units of ribosomes? protein and ribosomal RNA
Where do the proteins produced by a free ribosome go verses a bound ribosome? Proteins produced by free ribosomes are used in the cytoplasm (aka cytosol) while bound ribosomes make proteins for the cell membrane or for export.
What is translation? The process of making a protein according to the instructions of an mRNA.
What does the sER do? Involved in the production of lipids and steroids, lipid metabolism and drug detoxification.
What are cisternae? envelopes, in context of the ER and Golgi apparatus.
What is the Golgi apparatus and what does it do? It's a stack of 3-10 cisternae, which have a cis (convex) and trans (concave) face. It's the sorting and packaging section for the products of the rER. Secretory granules and lysosomes also arise from the Golgi apparatus.
What are cristae? The inner folded membrane in mitochondria.
What are lysosomes? Spherical, membrane-walled sacs containing digestive enzymes called acid hydrolases. Site of intracellular digestion, destroy worn out organelles and digest substances brought in by vesicles.
What are two diseases that are caused by the absence or underproduction of certain enzymes? Tay-sachs disease and Gaucher's
What are peroxisomes? A membrane-walled, enzyme containing sac. Oxidase converts free radicals to hydrogen peroxide which is then converted to oxygen and water by catalases.
What does catalase do? Breaks down poisons, such as alcohol, phenol, formaldehyde, and hydrogen peroxide (which is the product of oxidase neutralizing free radicals)
What organs contain a lot of peroxisomes? The liver and kidney
What are the 3 types of cytoskeleton? microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments
What are microtubules and where are they found? Cylindrical structures made of tubulin proteins. Microtubules radiate out from the centrosome region close to the nucleus.
What do microtubules do? The give the cell its shape and they organize the distribution and transport of various organelles within the cytoplasm.
What are microfilaments and what do they do? They are fine filaments of the contractile protein actin. Actin interacts with the protein myosin to generate contractile forces within the cell. It is involved with other types of cellular movements, such as amoeboid movements and extension of pseudopods
What are intermediate filaments and what do they do? They are tough, insoluble and stable protein fibers which act to resist tension placed on the cell.
What are centrosomes? A spherical structure in the cytoplasm near the nucleus. There is the matrix (an outer cloud of protein) and an inner pair of centrioles.
In centrosomes, what do the matrix proteins do? They are involved with the elongation of microtubules and mitotic spindle of microtubules radiates from it in the dividing cells.
What are centrioles? The core of centrosomes, they are paired cylindrical bodies perpendicular to each other. They are each made of nine bundles of 3 mivrotubules. They organize a microtubule network during mitosis to form the spindle and the asters.
Created by: kristinelawrence



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