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Patho week 1

morphology The study of the physical form and structure of an organism; or the form and structure of a particular organism. (Adjective
incidence The rate at which a certain event occurs (e.g., the number of new cases of a specific disease during a particular period of time in a population at risk).
morbidity A diseased condition or state; the relative incidence of a disease or of all diseases in a population.
prevalence The number of new and old cases of a disease that are present in a population at a given time, or occurrences of an event during a particular period of time.
Pathophysiology may be defined as the physiology of altered health.
Pathology (from the Greek pathos, meaning “disease”) deals with the study of the structural and functional changes in cells, tissues, and organs of the body that cause or are caused by disease.
Disease may be defined as an interruption, cessation, or disorder of a body system or organ structure that is characterized usually by a recognized etiologic agent or agents, an identifiable group of signs and symptoms, or consistent anatomic alterations
The aspects of the disease process include etiology, pathogenesis, morphologic changes, and clinical manifestations
The causes of disease are etiologic factors.
Among the recognized etiologic agents are biologic agents (e.g., bacteria, viruses), physical forces (e.g., trauma, burns, radiation), chemical agents (e.g., poisons, alcohol), and nutritional excesses or deficits
Congenital conditions are defects that are present at birth, although they may not be evident until later in life, may be caused by genetic influences, environmental factors or a combination of genetic and environmental factors
Acquired defects are defects that are caused by events that occur after birth. These include injury, exposure to infectious agents, inadequate nutrition, lack of oxygen, inappropriate immune responses, and neoplasia
Pathogenesis is the sequence of cellular and tissue events that take place from the time of initial contact with an etiologic agent until the ultimate expression of a disease
Morphology refers to the fundamental structure or form of cells or tissues. Morphologic changes are concerned with both the gross anatomic and microscopic changes that are characteristic of a disease
Histology deals with the study of the cells and extracellular matrix of body tissues
Signs and symptoms are terms used to describe the structural and functional changes that accompany a disease
A symptom is a subjective complaint that is noted by the person with a disorder
A sign is a manifestation that is noted by an observer
Signs and symptoms may be related to the primary disorder or they may represent the body’s attempt to compensate for the altered function caused by the pathologic condition
A syndrome is a compilation of signs and symptoms
Complications are possible adverse extensions of a disease or outcomes from treatment
Sequelae are lesions or impairments that follow or are caused by a disease
A diagnosis is the designation as to the nature or cause of a health problem
The diagnostic process usually requires a careful history and physical examination
Tests used to confirm a diagnosis Laboratory tests, radiologic studies, computed tomography (CT) scans
The quality of data on which a diagnosis is based may be judged for their validity, reliability, sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value
Validity refers to the extent to which a measurement tool measures what it is intended to measure
Reliability refers to the extent to which an observation, if repeated, gives the same result
Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people with a disease who are positive for that disease on a given test or observation (called a true-positive result)
Specificity refers to the proportion of people without the disease who are negative on a given test or observation (called a true-negative result)
Predictive value is the extent to which an observation or test result is able to predict the presence of a given disease or condition
A positive predictive value refers to the proportion of true-positive results that occurs in a given population
A negative predictive value refers to the true-negative observations in a population
An acute disorder is one that is relatively severe, but self-limiting
Chronic disease implies a continuous, long-term process. A chronic disease can run a continuous course or can present with exacerbations and remissions
Subacute disease is intermediate or between acute and chronic
Epidemiology is the study of disease occurrence in human populations
Epidemiology looks for patterns, such as age, race, dietary habits, lifestyle, or geographic location, of persons affected with a particular disorder
Epidemiologic methods are used to determine how a disease is spread, how to control it, how to prevent it, and how to eliminate it
epidemiologic studies serve as a basis for clinical decision making, allocation of health care dollars, and development of policies related to public health issues
Incidence reflects the number of new cases arising in a population at risk during a specified time
The population at risk is considered to be persons who are without the disease but are at risk for developing it
The cumulative incidence estimates the risk of developing the disease during that period of time
Prevalence is a measure of existing disease in a population at a given point in time (e.g., number of existing cases divided by the current population)
Mortality statistics provide information about the causes of death in a given population
Morbidity describes the effects an illness has on a person’s life
risk factors Conditions suspected of contributing to the development of a disease. They may be inherent to the person (high blood pressure or overweight) or external (smoking or drinking alcohol)
The natural history of a disease refers to the progression and projected outcome of the disease without medical intervention
By studying the patterns of a disease over time in populations, epidemiologists can better understand its natural history
Prognosis refers to the probable outcome and prospect of recovery from a disease. It can be designated as chances for full recovery, possibility of complications, or anticipated survival time
There are three fundamental types of prevention primary prevention, secondary prevention, and tertiary prevention
Primary prevention is directed at keeping disease from occurring by removing all risk factors
Secondary prevention detects disease early when it is still asymptomatic and treatment measures can affect a cure or stop the disease from progressing
Tertiary prevention is directed at clinical interventions that prevent further deterioration or reduce the complications of a disease once it has been diagnosed
Physiology deals with the functions of the human body.
pathophysiology focuses on the mechanisms of the underlying disease process and provides the background for preventive as well as therapeutic health care measures and practices.
Created by: 1480781538



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