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Respiratory Phys 10

WVSOM -- Introduction to Pulmonary Function Testing

QuestionAnswer
How are lung volumes typically changed in emphysema? emphysema increases lung volumes
How are lung volumes typically changed in pulmonary fibrosis? fibrosis causes decreased lung volumes
How is airway resistance typically affected in emphysema? Increased resistance due to loss of elastic fibers
How is airway resistance typically affected in pulmonary fibrosis? increased resistance by increased radial traction
What are the two main categories of pulmonary function test? ventilatory capacity and dection of hypoxemia
What are the two ways to test ventilatory capacity? forced expiration and lung volumes
What are the 4 tests for detection of hypoxemia? blood gases, V/Q scan, ventilation inequality and diffusion capacity
What are lung volumes like in obstructive lung disease? large lung volumes
What is airway resistance like in obstructive lung disease? increased airway resistance
What are lung volumes like in restrictive lung disease? small lung volumes
What is airway resistance like in restrictive lung disease normal airway resistance
What test differentiates from obstructive vs. restrictive disease? forced expiration
What is measured from a forced expiration? FEV1 and FVC
What is FEV1? vol exhaled in 1st second
What is FVC? total vol exhaled
What happens to FEV in obstructive disease? decreased
What happens to FVC in obstructive disease? decreased
What happens to FEV1 in restrictive disease? decreased
What happens to FVC in restrictive disease? decreased
What happens to the FEV1/FVC ratio in obstructive disease? decreased
What happens to the FEV1/FVC ratio in restrictive disease? normal or elevated
What is normal FEV1/FVC ration? 0.8
What factors determine the FEV1? lung volume, airway resistance and airway collapse
What restricts FEV1 in obstructive disease? increased airway resistance
What restricts FEV1 in restrictive disease? low lung volume
What decreases FVC in obstructive disease? earlier airway collapse
What decreases the FVC in restrictive disease? low Total Lung Copacity
What is normal forced expiratory flow rate? 3.5L/sec
Does Forced expiratory flow rate increase or decrease in obstructive disease? decrease
Does forced expiratory flow rate increase or decrease in restrictive disease? increase
What do you use to measure functional residual capacity? helium dilution
Why is helium used to measure functional residual capacity? it is nearly insoluble in blood
What tests are used to assess the presence or causes of hypoxemia? blood gas measurement, ventilation-perfusion inequality and diffusion capacity
Why do you measure functional residual capacity? needed for absolute lung volume
What is a V/Q scan? identifies regional reductions in ventilation or perfusion
How do you measure the diffusion capacity? Measure the rate of disappearance of CO from alveolar gas during a 10 sec breath hold
Under what situation does DLCO not work? if there is regional inequality because CO doesn’t’ get to the alveoli
How can ventilation inequality be revealed? by changes in expired N2 concentration following a single breat of pure O2
What is expired N2 concentration with equal ventilation? initially there is no nitrogen but then N2 concentration increases and plateus
What is expired N2 concentration with inequality of ventilation? Initially there is no nitrogen but the concentration rises at the end of expiration
What is the DLCO in emphysema? decreased
What is DLCO in astma and chronic bronichitis? normal
What is DLCO in instersitial fibrosis? decreased
What is DLCO in chest wall abnormality and neuromuscular problems? normal DLCO
Created by: tjamrose