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Respiratory Phys 8

WVSOM -- Control of Ventilation

QuestionAnswer
How will arterial PO2 change in hypoventilation? will go down
How will arterial Pco2 change in hypoventilation? go up
How will arterial pH change in hypoventilation? go down
What does ventilatory contol do? maintains arterial PO2 and Pco2 in the face of changing demands
How is the respiratory system controlled? thru negative feedback
What is the regulated variable in the respiratory control system? arterial Pco2
What is the sensor in the negative feedback look for respiratory control? chemoreceptors
What is the effector in the negative feedback look for respiratory control? respiratory muscles
What are the 3 basic elements of the respiratory control system? respiratory muscles, arterial Pco2 and chemoreceptors
Where is the respiratory control center controlled? pons and medulla
What are the two basic roles of the respiratory control center? integration and pattern generation
What can voluntarily override the medulla and pons? the cortex by voluntary override and the hypothalums/limbic system with emotional changes
What does the Pons and medulla integrate? chemoreceptors, lung receptors and the cortex/hypothalamus/limbic system
What are the three main collections of neurons that control inspiration and expiration? pneumotaxicc center, apneustic area and medullary respiratory center
What does the pneumotaxic center do? fine tuning
What does the apneustic area do? prologns inspiration
What does the medullary respiratory center do? respiratory pattern.
What are the two main groups of neurons in the medullary respiratory center? dorsal respirtatory group and ventral respiratory group
What do the dorsal respiratory group do? mainly inspiration
What does the ventral respiratory group do? mainly expiration
Where is the pneumotaxic center at? pons
Where is the apneustic area located? lower pons
What synchronizes onset of inspiration and expiration? integrator neurons
What lung receptors promote expiration? lung stretch receptors
What receptors promote inspiration? irritant
What do C-fibers do? dectect inflammation and cause rapid, shallow breathing
Where are C-fibers? bronchi
What do J receptors do? dectect interstitial edema and promote rapid shallow breathing. Located in alveoli
Why are J receptors called J receptors? they are close to junxtacapillaries
What are the 2 groups of chemo receptors? central and peripheral
What is the primary chemo receptor? central
Where is the central chemocreceptors? medulla
Where are the peripheral chemoreceptors? carotid and aortic
What do central chemoreceptors respond to? pH of the CSF which is dependent on arterial Pco2
What do peripheral chemoreceptors mediate? ventilatory response to hypoxia as well as respond ot arterial Pco2 and pH
What is the most important parameter controlling ventilation? arterial co2
How much of an increase does it take in Paco2 to double ventilation? 2mmHg
How much PaO2 must be reduced for a significant increase in ventilation? <50mmHg
What decreases sensitivity to arterial Pco2? sleep, COPD and depressant drugs
What is the main chemoreceptor to drive breathing in severe COPD? peripheral
Which chemoreceptors respond faster? peripheral
What chemoreceptor gives most of the response? central chemoreceptors. Peripheral chemoreceptors provide only 20%
Why do peripheral chemoreceptors respond faster? they sense the blood first
Decreased areterial PO2 is detected by which receptors? peripheral chemoreceptors
Explain Cheyne-Stokes respiration? There is hyperventilation from stimulation of J receptor stimulation because of hypoxemia. Then there is a decreased Paco2 which causes apnea
Which chemorecpetors are important in the ventilatory response to hypoxia? peripheral
Created by: tjamrose
 

 



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