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Respiratory Phys 9

WVSOM -- Respiratory System under Stress

How does ventilation change with increased arterial Pco2? Increased ventilation
Which chemoreceptors are mainly stimulated? central chemoreceptors
How does ventilation change in hypoxia? increased ventilation
Which chemoreceptors are mainly stimulated? peripheral chemoreceptors
What happens to Inspired PO2 with increase in altitude? drops
What happens as barometric pressure drops? PIO2 drops
What is the barometric pressure at the top of Mt. Everest? 43mmHg
Does PO2 drop with altitude? no it is just less dense so only Inspired PO2 is decreased
What 4 things help us acclimate to high altitude? hyperventilation, polycythemia, O2 dissociation curve and circulatory changes
How does Hyperventilation help with high altitudes? There is an increase in Alveolar PO2 by decreasing the PAco2. You basically blow off more CO2
How does ventilation increase in two stages during alveolar hypoxia? Arterial and CSF pH correction allows ventilation to increase further. Alkalosis then limits hyperventilation.
What are the effects of acute mountain sickness are attributable to hypoxemia and alkalosis? headach, dizziness, palpations, fatuge, nausea, loss of appetite and insomnia
What is polyctyhemia? increase in red blood cells
How does polycythemia help in high altitude? helps normalize blood O2 content
How is polycythemia bad? Increased viscosity
What happens to the O2 dissociation curve at high altitude? Shifts left
What happens to the O2 disassociation curve at moderate altitude? Curve shifts to the right so that it is more willing to release O2
What systemic changes happen at high altitude? more capillary formation and mitochondrial enzyme expression to maintain the gradient
What happens to pulmonary circulation at high altitudes? Hypoxic vasoconstriction which is not helpful. It happens all over the lung instead of localized
What happens with prolonged breathing of pure O2? it is toxic. Person has convulsions, pulmonary edema and decreased vital capacity
Why can breathing pure oxygen be toxic? It splints N2 and causes absorption atelectasis
What is absorption atelectasis? Pure O2 will cause wash out all the N2 in your alveoli and blood and there will be a much longer partial pressure that will lead to airway collapse
How does Hyperbaric O2 useful in CO poisoning? Increased barometric pressure with increased PIO2 will lead to an increased dissolved O2 in the blood
What does Nitrogen and sulfur oxides do to the lung? causes inflammation
What does ozone do to the lung? causes extra edema in the lung
What do hydrocarbons do to the lung? carcinogenic
Why is CO bad? it binds to hemoglobin so O2 can’t
Where do large particles deposit in the lung? nasopharynx. They are removed by swallowing
Where does does sedimentation deposit in the respiratory system? they are medium particles that deposit in small airways
Where do small particles deposit in the lungs? alveoli
What is coal miners pneumoconiosis? deposition of coal dust in respiratory bronchioles
What does cigarette smoke do to the lungs? increased resistance
What does the ductus arteriosus do? shunts blood away from the lungs.
Why is blood shunted away from the lungs in an embryo? lungs do not need blood because no diffusion is going on.
What is the purpose of the foramen ovale? directs oxygenated blood to the heart and blood
Why is placental gas exchange NOT efficient? The blood flows haphazard around and the blood supply is in parallel so oxygenated blood mixes with de-oxygenated blood
What are the respiratory changes at birth: switching from placental to lung gas exchange?
Created by: tjamrose



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