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GIT& Special Senses

Nwhsu GIT

Define digestion breaking down complex molecules into simple molecules
Mechanical digestion Chewing
Chemical digestion Enzymes (catalysts)
Parasympathetic activity Facilitate movement of food, promotes secretion, Ach/Peptides
Sympathetic Norepinepherin
T or F GIT has its own nervous system Ture, Enteric Nervous System
Gastrin: Source, Function, Receptor Cell S: G cells in the antrum, F: Increase H+ secretion by parietal cells & stimulate GROWTH of Gastric Mucosa, RC: PARIETAL Cells -stimulated by A.As, stomach wall distention by food, pH, vagal stimulation, GRP/bombesin
Factors that can damage gastric mucosa Stress, NSAIDS, Alcohol, Smoking
Imbalance of what can cause Gastric Ulcers Acid production/secretion & mucosal protection
CCK: Source, Function, Receptor Cell S: Duodenal & Jejunal "I" cells, F: promotes FAT digestion& Absorption, RC: (2) CCKa&CCKb -stimulated by monoglycerides and fatty acids & A.As
CCKa vs CCKb CCKa found on pancreatic Acinar cells & Gallblader (selective to CCK), CCKb found on STOMACH & in the Brain (sensitive to gastrin and CCK)
Actions of CCK (5) Contraction of gallbladder -Secretion Enzymes (Lipase, Amylase, Proteases) -Secretion of bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) -Trophic effects on gallbladder & Pancreas -INHIBITION of gastric emptying & Increase gastric emptying time
Can the Pancreatic enzymes function in acidic environment? No, they need a basic environment, need Bicarbonate ions (HCO3-)
Lipase converts: Fats-->Fatty Acid
Amylase converts: Starch--> Glucose
Trypsin converts: Protein-->A.As
Secretin: Source, Function, Receptor Cell S: S cells Duodenal glands, F: secretion of pancreatic &biliary HC03- from ductal cells, reduces gastric motility & secretion (INHIBITS GASTRIN) RC:ductal cells -stimulated by LOW pH in Stomach
Define GIP Glucose dependent Insulinotropic Peptide
GIP: Source, Function, Receptor Cell S: K cells in Duodenal&Jejunal glands, F: stim Insulin secretion, Inhibit Gastric H+ secretion, Limits Gastric Emptying RC** - secreted in response to Glucose, A.A &FAs
Molitin Hormone: Source, Function S: Enterochromaffin cells F: Increase stomach and intestinal MOTILITY, Intestinal "HOUSEKEEPER" & "MIGRRATING MOTOR COMPLEX"
Function of Pancreatic polypeptide Hormone Inhibits pancreatic secretion of HCO3-
Function of Enteroglucagon Hormone Increase glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis in Liver
T or F Somatostatin is a Paracrine TRUE
GIT Somatostatin: Source, Function, Receptor Cell S: D cells F: inhibits secretion of other hormones and Gastric H+ secretion
Histamine (paracrine) function Stimulates H+ secretion with Ach and gastrin
Zantac antagonist of ? Histamine (blocker)
Causes relaxation of SM (2) VIP & Neuropeptide Y
Causes contraction of SM (2) Enkephalins & Substance P
Increases saliva Substance P
GIT all smooth muscle except Pharynx, Upper 1/3 esophagus and External Anal Sphincter (all SK muscle)
GI smooth muslce pacemaker (synchronizes contraction & generates ATP) CAJAL CELLS
CHEWING function Increases surface area, facilitates swallowing, mix food w/ saliva, stimulates taste buds, initiates secretion of enzymes & bile
Chewing starts by stretch in mechanoreceptors that orchestrates REFLEX OSCILLARTOR pattern of muscles
Swallowing (deglutition) receive affterents via Vagus & glossopharyngeal
What compacts food into a bolus TONGUE
CN that stimulates opening of lower esophageal sphincter CN 10 VAGUS
Relaxation of Lower Esophageal Sphincter leads to RECEPTIVE RELAXATION of ORAD region of stomach
Stomach can accommodate 1.5L of food
Steps of Motility (4) Reception--> Mixing --> Gastric Emptying --> Retropulsion (if food isnt properly mixed)
What shuts during retropulsion pyloris
caudad region includes lower body and antrum
Orad region includes Fundus & upper body
Innervation of stomach PE & E PE: Myenteric plexus, E: Celiac ganglion
Neurotransmitter of Vasovagal reflex VIP
Due to strong peristaltic contraction, Majority of Mixing occurs in the ANTRUM
Inhibitor of Gastric Emptying (4) FAT, ACID, Hypertonicity, Distention
Primary method of motility (thorough mixing occurs) SEGMENTATION
Does PE or E activity INCREASE segmentation? PE, E decreases segmentation
Segmentation occurs when chyme enters the Duodenum
Peristalsis between meals that sweeps the inestine clean is known as Migrating Motility Complex, 3 steps forward, 2 steps back
What 2 hormones are involved in the Gastrocolic Reflex
What coordinates the vomiting reflex Medulla
Saliva's Tonicity? Hypotonic (less salt)
Antibody in saliva IgA
Enzymes in saliva that start Fat Digestion Salivary amylase &Lingual lipase
Antagonist of PE that blocks Muscarinic R on Acinar Cell ATROPINE, dry mouth
B12 deficieny can lead to DDX Pernicious anemia
The Mucus cells provide (3) Lubrication, Protection against self digestion by pepsin & acid injury
Chief cellssecret pepsinogen
What converts Pepsinogen into Pepsin HCL
G cells secrete Gastrin
Parietal cells secrete (2) HCL & Intrinsic factor
What 2 things can be absorbed in the stomach Asprin & Alcohol
Gastric Gand contains chief cells and parietal cells
Ach and gastring stimulate the release of Histamine
Histamine stimulates which cells parietal
Phases of Gastric secretion Cephalic, Gastric, Intestinal
What occurs in the Cephalic reflex phase Sensory stimulation --> Gustatory centers -->Vagal nuclei and intricsic plexuses
What occurs in the Gastric phase Added stimulation of food and POTENTIATION PE & ENS
Which phases are EXCITATORY to gastric secretion Cephalic & Gastric
In the Intestinal phase, what happens to secretion in the stomach? Contents empty into intestine and thus LESS PROTEIN and DISTENTION to stimulate secretion in stomach
Which cells are stimulated in intestinal phase D-Cells (SOMATOSTATIN), inhibiting release from parietal, chief & ECL cells and PEPSIN & HCl
H+ ions for HCl (H+/K+ATPase)secretion in gastric Parietal Cell come from which PUMP/Exchanger? CO2&H20 ….Chloride Bicarbonate exchanger slide 36
What are the agents that stimulate H+ secretion Vagus (Ach), G cells (Gastrin), ECL cells (Histamine)
What are the agents that inhibit H+ secretion Somatostatin & Prostaglandins
OMEPRAZOLE (prilosec) inhibitor of H+/K+ATPase action inhibiting H+ secretion!
What is in the protective barrier HCO3- and Mucus
What are protective factors on the mucosa HCO3- & mucus, Prostaglandins, Mucosal blood flow, Growth Factor
What are Damaging factors on the mucosa H+, Pepsin, H.Pylori, NSAIDs, Stress, Smoking, Alcohol
In Peptic Ulcer Disease there is an imbalance between Mucus secretion and Acid protection
Pancreatic secretions contain Amylase, Lipase, Protease, CHOs, Fats, Proteins, HCO3-
80% of pancreatic secretions goes into the ? Intestine
Pancreatic secretions's TONICTY? Hypotonic
Liver Functions Regulation of metabolism, Synthesis of proteins, storage of vitamins and IRON, degrading Hormones, inactivating excreting drugs and toxins
Major source of Cholesterol production and Only source of Excretion LIVER
Which organ converts Chylomicron to VLDL, then HDL and LDL Liver
Bile is responsible for Emusification of FATS
Enterohepatic Circulation Circulation of Bile Salts
Bile is stored in _________ and Formed in the _________ Gallbladder, liver
What happens in the Gallbladder Bile is concentrated
Bile consists of 50%salts, 40%phospholipids, 4%cholesterol, 2%bilirubin
Salt when conjugated with Na+ is bile acid
The end product of heme catabolism Bilirubin
Cholesterol -->Liver--> = Primary bile acid
Cholesterol--->Liver---> Primary bile acids--> intestinal Bacteria ---> = Secondary bile acid
Primary bile acids (2) cholic acid, chenodeoxycholic acid
Secondary bile acids (2) Deoxycholic acid, Lithocholic acid
Emptying of gallblader is caused by ______ binding to ____ CCK to CCKb
Opening of the sphincter of oddi is caused by CCK
Bile is ejected in steady spurts or stream? Spurts
Only IRON and CALCIUM absorption is… adjusted to the body's needs (not indiscriminately)
B12 and Bile salts are absorbed in Ileum
Enzyme that breaksdown Starch alpha amylase
Lactose is broken down into Glucose and Calactose (via lactase)
Sucrose is broken down into Glucose and fructose (via sucrase)
Maltotrios is broken down into glucose via sucrase
Final digestion of maltose, sucrose and lactose occurs in microvilli
fructose is absorbed into the blood by Facilitated diffusion only
Protein digestion in the stomach occurs via which enzyme Pepsin ...Protein-->pepsin--> AMINO ACID &oligopeptides
Protein digestion in the small intestine, which enzymes trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, carboxy A&B
Makeup of a MICELLE Chol, MG, LysoPL, FFA
Make up of Chylomicron PL, ApoB (Chol E, TG)
Vitamins are absorbed by sm intestine, H20 soluble Vit? B1,B2,B6 and B12, C
Fat soluble A, D,E,K
B12 absorption requires__ and is absorbed in ____ Intrinsic factor, Ileum
B12 is stored in Liver
B12 has ____ years worth maintained in the liver 3-6 years
B12 is required for (2) Proper myelination in the CNS & Nucleic acid synthesis
Vitamin C increases IRON absorption by Reducing Fe+++ to Fe++
Transferrin (Iron bound to BetaGlobulin) transports it from ____ to _____ Sm intestine to the liver
Heme iron is digested by lysosomes & is transported with apoferritin into blood
Vit D stimulates absorption of Ca++ against [gradient] by activating Ca++ transporter protein (calbindin-D-28K)
2 transporters of Ca++ exist in ________membrane basolateral
The 2 Ca++ transporters are Ca++ATPase & Ca++/Na+ ANTIporter
where is the HCO3-/Cl- exchanger located epithelial cell of Illeum
Passive absorption for Na+ occurs Btw Adjacent epithelia cells & Interstitial fluid
Active absorption for Na+ occurs through epithelial ceels requiring ATP& 2carriers
Deposition of Ca++ in the lense causes cataracts
Photoreceptors in the retina are (2) Rods & cones
Rods & Cones detect what Rods=Dark (shades of grey), Cones=Light (color vision)
Where is the blind spot located At the optic disk
Which portion of the retina are cones are most abundant Center (macula)
Portion of retina where Rods are most abundant Periphery
Rhodopsin Rod photopigment
Human ear is sensitive to a range of _______ (Hz of sound frequency) 20-20000
Sound pressure is expressed as dB
what sound pressure can cause damage to aud. Apparatus >100 dB
what sound pressure can cause pain to aud. Apparatus >120 dB
CN for hearing 8, Vestibulocochlear
Inner hair cells of scala media are located on the _____ membrane basilar
Is endolymph or perilymph in the scala media? endolmph (high in K+)
Contain vestibular hair cells covered by cupula Semi-circular canals
Detects angular acceleration Semi-circular canals
Responds selectively to TILTING of HEAD away for a HORIZONTAL position (get up from bed) SACCULE
Responds to vertically and directed linear acceleration jumping up and down, elevator
Sound waves are not conducted through external and middle ear Conductive deafness
Physical blockage of canal is what type of deafness Conductive deafness
Bony adhesion btw stapes and oval window is what type of deafness Conductive deafness
Sound waves are not TRANSLATED into nerve signals sensorineural defnesss
What is Neural Presbycusis degenerative age related process that occurs as hair cells wear out
Golf Proteins olfactory transuction
Created by: kfrancis



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