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Respiratory Phys 5

WVSOM -- Pulmonary Circulation

What is the organization of pulmonary circulation? pulmonary artery, branch with airways, mesh of capillaries at the respiratory bronchioles, pulmonary venules, and pulmonary veins
What is the flow and pressure of pulmonary circulation? high flow, low pressure
What happens to alveolar vessels when they are exposed to high alveolar pressure? contract
What happens to alveolar capillaries when the alveolar pressure is low? the alveolar capillaries dilate
What inspiration do to extra-alveolar vessels? pulls them open by radial traction
What is the only organ to receive all of the cardiac output? lungs
Why is there little smooth muscle in the lung? only enough to direct blood to all areas of the lung.
What determines blood flow in the lung? passive hydrostatic forces
What are the two types of vessels in the lung? alveolar vessels (capillaries exposed to alveolar gases) and extra-alveolar vessels
What determines the diameter of extra-alveolar vessels? lung volume
What determines the caliber of alveolar vessels? balance between internal and alveolar pressures
Which vessel can collapse if alveolar pressure is large enough? pulmonary capillaries
What is pulmonary vascular resistance compared to systemic vascular resistance? pulmonary vascular resistance is 1/10th of the systemic vascular resistance
What will happen to pulmonary vascular resistance if the arterial or venous pressure increases? pulmonary vascular resistance decreases
Why does pulmonary vascular resistance reduce? recruitment and distension of other pulmonary capillaries
When does pulmonary vascular resistance increase? with low or high lung volumes
Why does pulmonary vascular resistance increase at high lung volumes? the high volumes put a lot pressure on the capillaries stretching them increasing resistance
Why does pulmonary vascular resistance increase at low lung volumes? the resistance is from the extra alveolar vessels because there is less radial traction to open up these vessels.
Where is pulmonary blood flow grater? lung base
Where is the greatest distension of capillaries? Zone 3 (base)
Where are the vessels most compressed? zone 1 (apex)
What is hypoxic vasoconstriction? blood flow in the lung is directed away from the hypoxic area of the lung. Usually is regional
What happens in generalized hypoxia? elevates pulmonary pressure by large areas of hypoxia which results in edema.
Why is keeping the alveolar walls problematic in keeping them dry? they are very thin
What causes fluid leakage? Hydrostatic pressure and the surface tension
What causes fluid to stay in the capillaries? colloid osmotic pressure and lymph drainage
Where is fluid in early edema? engorgement of interstitial spaces
Where is fluid in late edema? fluid in alveoli
What are the metabolic functions of the pulmonary system? conversion of angiotension I to Angiotension II, serotonin uptake and removal of Norepi, leukotrienes and prostaglandins
Created by: tjamrose