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HES 403- Exam 3

Two ways we determine fiber type in the lab, what develops?
Troponin-c isoforms higher sensitivity in power athletes
Western blot of fiber type was looking at what? myosin heavy chain
Counting fiber type was looking at what? myosin ATPase
Soleus muscle posture muscle; slow-twitch
White vastis lateralis found only in rodents; very few mitochondria
Diaphragm mix of slow and fast twitch & mosaic fibers
Red/white fibers both FT; red= IIa, white= IIb (rodents only)
Slow twitch fiber characteristics high oxidative capacity, low glycolytic capacity, 110 ms speed, 10-180 fibers per motor neuron, low SR development
FT a characteristics moderate oxidative capacity & moderate fatigue resistance, 50 ms speed, high anaerobic capacity, 300-800 fibers per neuron
FT b characteristics high anaerobic capacity, 50 ms speed, higher peak force, 300-800 per neuron, high SR volume
Primary difference in force between FT and ST number of fibers per neuron, but each fiber does have higher peak power
Myosin ATPase Vmax 3x higher IIa than I; 5x higher IIb than I
What determines fiber type? genetics determine which neuron; become specialized based on that neuron; endurance training can result in small changes; aging FT==>ST
Alpha motor neurons innervate skeletal muscle
Gamma motor neurons aka muscle spindles
Muscle spindles; what do they sense? sense both length and rate of change in length
Golgi tension organs defense against injury; sense tension
Ca2+ sensitivity of myofibrilar proteins/fatigue (3) (troponin C); reduction from Pi, lower pH, or ROS
Max Ca2+ activated force/fatigue reduced by Pi
SR Ca2+ released by RyR/fatigue CaPi precipitation, Mg2+, low ATP, Pi
SR Ca2+ reuptake/fatigue Pi, ADP, low ATP, ROS
Size of fast twitch and slow twitch muscles fast twitch usually larger
Glycogen synthase untrained ST/FT & endurance trained? more in FT than ST; will increase in FT and IIa
Plasticity of muscle inside & outside mitochondria outside= small changes; inside=large
Phenotype adaptations in muscle fiber size, enzymes/ Vmax, gene expression, organelle morphology
Interval training adaptations look like endurance; not sure why
Calcium sensitive transcription factors slow twitch sensitive to low concentration; fast twitch sensitive to high concentration
Muscle IGF paracrine/autocrine; spliced differently
Muscle satellite cells (stem cells); work in muscle repair, can be recruited with exercise, become deaf to signals as we age (may also decrease with age)
Myostatin autocrine/paracrine growth signal
Myostatin mutation huge steer (involved in gigantism)
Regulation of skeletal muscle plasticity (5) nutrition, exercise, endo/exogenous signals, aging, drugs/hormones
Progressive overload progressive increase in training load as body adapts (volume/intensity)
Adaptations to resistance training (3) hypertrophy, increased power, increased 1 rep max (increased performance)
VO2 doesn’t decline in de-training, but… it’s not a good indicator of performance in homogeneous populations (pH threshold is better)
Endurance training adaptations (6) cardiovascular, pulmonary, skeletal muscle, bone/connective tissue, endocrine, renal
5 causes of overtraining syndrome neuromuscular, sympathetic system, metabolic, psychological, adrenal
neuromuscular overload choline depletion?
Sympathetic overload maladaptive fight or flight
Metabolic overload glycogen or AA depletion
Psychological overload altered hypothalamic pituitary function
Adrenal overload decreased cortisol response
Symptoms of overtraining performance, weight loss, allergies/colds, emotional, HR/BP, muscle tenderness
Causes of overtraining excessive training, emotional, *abnormal autonomic NS, *disturbances in endocrine, *depressed immune (*=probably b/c of overtraining)
URTI highest in sedentary and very high exercise volume/intensity
Highest fidelity sign of overtraining? increased resting heart rate
How to predict overtraining? constant miles per hour, measure heart rate compared to trained
How to treat over-training? decrease intensity for several days, rest 3-5 days, counseling, alternate easy with hard, carbs
Excessive training an unnecessarily high volume or intensity
4 effects of properly tapering increased muscular strength, reserved energy stores, no loss of VO2 max, performance increases
which sport has seen the most tapering research? swimmers
detraining cessation of regular training due to inactivity or immobilization; loss of muscle strength/size/power, decrease in muscular & cv endurance, loss of speed/agility/flexibility
loss of muscle strength during detraining disrupted fiber recruitment (also happens in sarcopenia), atrophy
how to retain training gains if detraining? training once every 10-14 days (only works ~2x)
loss of muscular endurance (5) ox enzyme, glycolytic unchanged for 84 days, glycogen, acid-base, capillaries
loss of cardiorespiratory endurance (4) greatest in highly trained; plasma volume, stroke volume, endurance performance, VO2 max
detraining effects (endurance athletes) can be minimized by training 3x per week at 70% VO2 max
what is considered high altitude? 1500 m (4921 ft)
environmental changes at high altitude decreased pO2, temp, humidity, increased solar radiation
respiratory water loss exacerbated in dry climates (high altitude); need more body water to moisten air
what cognitive things decline with high altitude? (6) light sensitivity, visual acuity, postural stability, cognition, recall, reaction time
3 metabolic responses to altitude increased anaerobic metabolism, increased lactate production, decreased lactate at VO2 max
respiratory responses to altitude (3) VE increases, pulmonary diffusion unchanged (if no edema), O2 transport and uptake impaired
altitude for sea-level performance RBCs maintained when return to sea level; not proven; difficult to study since volume reduced at high altitude (live high train low)
training for optimal altitude performance 1500-3000m above sea level 2 weeks before, do not compete within 24 hours, increase VO2 max at sea level to compete at a lower relative intensity
symptoms of acute mountain sickness (4) nausea, vomiting, dyspnea, insomnia
when does AMS occur? within 6-96 hours of arrival at altitude
what might be the cause of AMS? CO2 accumulation (does not match up w/ hyperventilation)
how to prevent AMS? ascend slowly (<300 m per day above 3000m)
symptoms of high altitude pulmonary edema (4) dyspnea, excessive fatigue, cyanosis (blue nails/lips), mental confusion
HAPE occurs when? rapid ascent above 2700m
Treat HAPE (3) administer O2 and move to lower altitude, dexamethasome (synthetic cortisol)
High altitude cerebral edema accumulation in the cranial cavity (>14000 feet); can easily lead to coma/death
Nitrogen narcosis similar to alcohol intoxication; “the rapture of the deep”
Heat producing hormones thyroxine, epinephrine, norepinephrine
Most important method of heat loss evaporation
Kcal/mL heat loss? 0.5 kcal/mL EVAPORATED sweat
Internal body temperature (3) can exceed 40C during exercise; may be 42 in active muscles; small Q10 effect= faster enzymes
How is body temp measured?
2 sensors of heat exchange & 4 regulators hypothalamus, central/peripheral thermoreceptors; sweat glands, smooth muscle around arterioles, skeletal muscle, endocrine
Cardic output in the heat some will have to go to the skin
Rate of heat exchange rest vs. exercise 1 kcal/min, 15kcal/min
Cardiovascular responses to exercise in heat muscles/skin compete for blood, stroke volume decreases, HR increases because of this (cardiac drift)
Metabolic responses to exercise in heat (4) body temp increases, O2 uptake increases (inefficiency), glycogen depletion hastened, lactate increases (inefficiency)
Heat acclimatization (4) sweating becomes more efficient (where not blocked), blood flow to skin decreases, blood volume increases, glycogen use decreases
How to acclimatize to heat? 1 hour or more for 5-10 days; CV adaptations 3-5 days, sweat mechanics up to 10
How does the body conserve/produce heat? (3) shivering, nonshivering thermogenesis (BAT), peripheral vasoconstriction
4 factors that affect body heat loss body side/comp (subcutaneous doesn’t matter much), air temperature, wind chill, water immersion
2 responses to exercise in the cold muscle fatigue occurs more quickly, FFA release impaired (use glycogen faster)
micro/zero gravity <1g; effects similar to detraining
what is a countermeasure to microgravity? exercise (but must not require power & be light)
ground based models of microgravity supine, walk on treadmill with feet
which fiber type declines quicker with microgravity/bedrest? fast twitch
vastis lateralis/soleus muscles quad/postural calf
28 days on skylab is like 30 days of bedrest
Created by: melaniebeale
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