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HES 403- Exam 2

3 functions of hormones during exercise fuel mobilization, cardiovascular actions, pulmonary actions
Which glut transporter is stimulated by insulin? glut-4
Which glut transporter is found in the liver? glut-2
What over-rides limited muscle glucose uptake in post-absorptive phase? contracting skeletal muscle
High insulin during exercise stimulates Rd and inhibits Ra (very bad)
Norepinephrine and epinephrine are derivatives of tyrosine
Where is norepinephrine released? leaking out of sympathetic neurons
Where is epinephrine released? adrenal medulla
Synthesis pathway of tyrosine derivatives tyrosine-> DOPA -> dopamine -> norepinephrine -> epinephrine
Physiologic effects of adrenergic receptors can cause constriction or dilation of blood vessels; inhibit lipolysis or stimulate it; etc
Calorigenesis heat production
Why is it ok to eat during exercise (with respect to insulin)? epi/NE inhibit insulin secretion
Steroid hormone biosynthesis testosterone to estradiol is only one step
Steroid hormones are synthesized from acetate
Amine receptors intracellular or extracellular
Neurotransmitters are amines
Steroid hormones major effect transcription
Amine/peptide hormones major effects transcription/modification of existing proteins
Orthostatic intolerance changing posture rapidly causes one to pass out (older)
4 types of 2nd messengers cAMP, Ca2+, IP3, phosphorylation/dephosphorylation cascades
epinephrine cascade adenylyl cyclase, cAMP, activate PKA, phosphorylase kinase, activates phosphorylase
insulin action at muscle GLUT1 always there, insulin tyrosine kinase makes GLUT4 translocate to the membrane
where does caffeine work (one) blocks adenosine from binding to its receptor (which usually inhibits adenylyl cyclase)
A1 receptor adenosine binds to it, and this inhibits adenylyl cyclase
PDE phosphodiesterase; breaks down cAMP into AMP
3 types of hormone action endocrine, paracrine, autocrine
where hormones come from (classic) hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, adrenal, pancreas, testes, ovaries
where hormones come from (novel) adipose, endothelium, skeletal muscle, heart, stomach, small intestine
brain produces some of its own insulin
does epi or NE have a higher concentration? norepinephrine
what happens to insulin training vs. untrained? goes down
what happens to plasma insulin during exercise? decreases
what happens to NE/epi as O2 consumption increases? up exponentially
lactate ___ and ____ improve with training turnover and clearance
effect of varying O2 supply on performance increased up to 100% (due to chemoreceptors? Or up from 97% saturation)
ADP/AMP intralipid vs. control higher for all during exercising, but higher for control condition
Metabolic response to exercise for FFA/glycerol/glucose/H+ both Ra and Rd increase (Ra may be more)
Metabolic response to exercise amino acids flux reduced (leucine oxidation increases)
Turnover cannot be assessed by blood concentration
Alveolar surface area 90 square meters (about 1000 square feet)
Two pulmonary zones conducting zone and respiratory zone
Muscle mechanics of breathing diaphragm descends, ribs rise
Why does EPOC occur? HR/ventilation do not immediately drop; lactate oxidation
Sea level pressure 760 mm Hg
Peak O2 location outside lungs
Peak CO2 location in mitochondria
N2 % 79.04%
O2 % 20.93%
CO2 % 0.03%
Why is alveolar O2 less than 21%? gradient moves it inside, moistening air lowers O2 partial pressure
Bohr effect higher acidity, CO2, higher temp allows more oxygen to be unloaded
Oxyhemoglobin dissociation is a sigmoid curve
Haldane effect opposite of Bohr effect; hemoglobin holds onto oxygen tighter at lungs
What affects oxygen carrying capacity other than hemoglobin saturation? number of red blood cells
Tidal volume vs. pulmonary minute ventilation directly proportional
Breathing frequency vs. pulmonary minute ventilation directly proportional
Inspiratory time/expiratory time vs. pulmonary minute ventilation inversely proportional
The ventilatory breakpoint the point at which ventilation increases disproportionately to oxygen consumption (before VO2 max)
Anaerobic threshold the point at which metabolism becomes more dependent on anaerobic pathways; reflects lactate under most conditions; increase in VE/VO2 without an increase in VE/VCO2
Where are chemoreceptors found? aortic bodies, carotid bodies; many others
Silent ischemia mutation in H+ channel of sensory receptors on heart
Proof can dissociate ventilation threshold from lactate threshold McArdle’s disease patients; ventilation threshold will still increase b/c of H+ from ATP hydrolysis
Dyspnea inappropriate shortness of breath
Lungs are the right size for CO2 release
Valsalva maneuver involuntary breathing technique that traps and pressurizes air in the lungs and can raise blood pressure
Hematocrit ratio of packed cells to total blood volume
Buffy coat white blood cells in blood (<1%)
Hematocrit responses to endurance training increase in plasma volume, increase in # RBCs (more of an increase in volume than blood cells so ratio goes down)
Arterial-venous oxygen difference amount of oxygen extracted from the blood as it travels through the body (increases w/ exercise)
4 factors that affect maximum race velocity running economy, velocity at LT, VO2 max, % VO2 max at LT
pulmonary anatomy & training does not change
what allows heart cells to contract together? intercalated disks
arteries aka conducting vessels
arterioles aka resistance vessels
capillaries aka exchange vessels
venules/veins aka capacitance vessels (large fraction of total blood volume)
average blood volume 5 L
venous return aided by (3) one-way valves, smooth muscle bands, muscular contractions
parasympathetic stimulated by vagus nerve; lower HR, force of contraction
why do endurance athletes have lower resting BP? stronger signal from vagus nerve
the heart is dependent on extracellular calcium ions (calcium induced calcium release)
preload factors that contribute to filling (stretching)
3 factors that affect preload cardiac output, posture, intrathoracic pressure
afterload tension during ejection; affected by anatomic impedance
3 factors that affect contractility loss of myocardium, ionotropic drugs, pharmacologic depressants
bradycardia <60 bpm
tachycardia >100 bpm
steady state HR optimal heartrate for demands at that specific work; lower= more efficient
stroke volume major determinant of endurance capacity at maximal rates of work
cardiac output average 5 L/min
if 40-60% VO2 max, increase in cardic output is due to heart rate, not stroke volume
functional sympatholysis over-riding signal to constrict
cardiac output is determined by the balance between mean arterial pressure and total peripheral resistance
distribution of cardic output in muscle at rest vs. exercise 20%/1000mL; 84%; 21,000 mL
poiseuille’s law radius^4 so that will affect flow more than pressure, length, or viscosity
cardiac output units L/min
stoke volume units mL/beat
counterregulatory hormones raise the level of glucose in the blood by promoting glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, ketosis, and other catabolic processes
Created by: melaniebeale