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Respiratory Phys 3

WVSOM -- Airflow thru the Airways

QuestionAnswer
What are the two factors controlling compliance? elastic fibers and surface tension of the alveoli
How does surfactant aid breathing? decreases surface tension increasing compliance, stabilizes alveoli and keeps lungs dry
What is compliance? ease of inflation
What is the predominant resistance to air flow? airway resistance
What makes up the 2 factors for airway resistance? tissue resistance and airway resistance
How is overall airway resistance calculated? from the pressure drop it creates
What is the equation for airway resistance? Change in pressure/rate of airflow
What are the 3 types of airflow? laminar, trubulent and transitional
What is laminar air flow? air flow is in a straight line. Happens with slower airflow
Where is laminar air flow seen? terminal bronchioles
Where is turbulent airflow? trachea
Where is transitional air flow? most of the lung, especially where airway divides
What is transitional air flow? Transitional air flow is where airways divide and it changes
What does laminar flow resistance depend on? radius and length
How is airway resistance proportional to radius? the Radius is inversely proportional to radius(4)
How is resistance proportional to length? it is proportional to length
Which has more air resistance? Turbulence or laminar flow? turbulence
What increase the probability of turbulence? high air flow and large airway diameter. Reynold’s number over 2000
What affects airway resistance besides pattern of air flow? lung volume and bronchial smooth muscle tone
What happens to resistance as volume increases? resistance decreases
How does lung volume affect the airway? radial traction…increases the radius by stretching the elastic fibers
What factors affect bronchial smooth muscle tone? parasympathetic stimulation, Beta 2 Stimulation and irritants
What does parasympathetic tone do to airway radius? decreases it
What does B2 stimulation do to airways? dilates them
What do irritants do to airways? causes more restriction, histamine releases and smoke obstructs the airways
What are the 3 obstructive lung diseases? chronic bronchitis, asthma and emphysema
What happens in chronic bronchitis? hyper mucus secretion so the lung fills with mucus
What happens in asthma? hyper-responsive smooth muscles so the airway gets narrower. Also hypertrophy so there is more muscle fibers
What happens in emphysema? Loose elastic collagen so there is less radial traction and the airway stays expanded.
What is forced expiration? compression of peripheral airways limits air flow
What controls air movement? lung pressures
What is the transairway pressure? the Airway pressure – Pleural pressure; net distending pressure.
What is the key thing that keeps the airway open? the Transairway pressure
What is the transpulmonary pressure? Alveolar pressure – Pleural pressure
What is the transairway pressure if the airway si open? positive
What is the transairway pressure if the airway is compressed? negative
During air flow, airway pressure is ___ alveolar pressure but _____ than mouth pressure. greater than; less than
What is the transairway pressure during inspiration? positive
What is the transairway pressure during passive expiration? positive
How do you calculate alveolar pressure? sum of intrapleural pressure and an elastic recoil pressure
What happens during forced expiration as far as pressure? the transairway pressure switching from positive to negative.
What happens to pleural pressure during forced expiration? increases and becomes positive
What happens to alveolar pressure during forced expiration? increases
Why does airway collapse occur more readily at low lung volumes? the airway pressure is lower
What does low lung volumes do to elastic recoil? decreases it because alveolar and airway pressure is decreased
What happens to radial traction with low lung pressures? the airway resistance goes up and the transairway pressure goes down causing it to decrease.
Why is there airway collapse in emphysema? There is a decrease in elastic recoil causing a decrease in alveolar and transairway pressure and thereby increased airway resistance
What is P(aw)? transairway pressure
Created by: tjamrose