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Nucleic Acids

Biochem Final, Mizzou, Spring 2015

circular DNA is located in the cytoplasm of bacteria; it is _____ in prokaryotes (bacteria)
nucleus where the DNA or "genome" is located eukaryotic cells
linear DNA is _____ in eukaryotes & contained within chromosomes
DNA genes are composed of ____
humans have 20-30,000 genes
nucleotides DNA and RNA are polymers of ______
nucleotides consist of a nitrogen base, a monosaccharide, & at least one phosphate
RNA sugar is a ribose, contains an OH group on the 2' C
DNA sugar is a deoxyribose, contains an H group on the 2' C
nucleoside a nitrogen base & a ribose sugar
nucleotide a nucleoside (base and ribose) with a phosphate group
primary this structure of nucleic acids is the order of the bases
secondary this structure of nucleic acids is the 3-D conformation of the polynucleotide backbone
tertiary this structure of nucleic acids is the supercoiling
quaternary this structure of nucleic acids is the DNA/ protein interactions
phosphodiester nucleotides are linked 5' to 3' by _________ bonds (primary structure)
constant the sugar-phosphate backbone is _______ (primary structure)
variable the nitrogen bases are _____ on the structure (primary structure)
secondary structure the ordered arrangement of nucleic acid strands
double helix 2 anti-parallel DNA strands coiled around the same axis (spiral staircase) this is the secondary structure
negatively DNA strands are anti-parallel and overall DNA is _____ charged (acidic)
hydrogen _______ bonds hold the two DNA strands together
two A-T has ____ hydrogen bonds
three G-C has ____ hydrogen bonds
upwards B-DNA is a *right-handed* helix (point thumb up, DNA winds ____ in direction fingers are pointing)
32 each base toasted by ____ degrees compared to the next provides for maximum base pairing
supercoiling the 3-D arrangement of all atoms of the DNA is called ________
topoisomerase enzymes that control the supercoiled state of DNA are ________
topoisomerase 1 cuts the phosphodiester backbone of ONE strand, passes the end through, and reseals the strand
topoisomerase 2 cuts BOTH strands, passes some of the remaining DNA helix between the cut strands, and reseals; gets rid of 2 coils at a time
histones supercoiling of eukaryotic DNA occurs through complexes with proteins called _______
positively histones are _____ charged proteins; rich in the basic amino acids lysine and arginine
chromatin a complex of DNA wound around histones in a bead-like structure
nucleosome a structural unit of a eukaryotic chromosome, consisting of a length of DNA coiled around a core of histones
histone proteins H2A, H2B, H3, & H4 (there are two of each)
hyperchromicity is the increase of absorbance (optical density) of a material. The most famous example is that of DNA that occurs when the DNA duplex is denatured
uracil the pyrimidine nitrogen bases in RNA are ____ and cytosine
tRNA transports amino acids to site of protein synthesis; intramolecular hydrogen bonding between A-U and G-C occurs in the sections of _____; "cloverleaf structure"
rRNA FOUND IN RIBOSOMES, the site of protein synthesis
mRNA directs amino acid sequence of proteins; contains the genetic information from DNA (genes); is translated into a polypeptide sequence (protein or an amino acid polymer)
Created by: oliviarees95