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ARTH 330

Nineteenth Century European Art

TermDefinition
Oath of the Horatii (1784-85) most well known painting by David 3 bros saluting toward 3 swords held up by their father as the women behind him grieve example of virtuous behavior personal sacrifice for an ideal typically interpreted in the context of the French Rev
Napoleon Crossing the Alps at St. Bernard Pass (1800) propaganda makes Nap seem larger than life after 10 yrs of terror + uncertainty following the Rev France= emerging as a great pwr once more portrait of authority Nap's name carved beside the names of Hannibal + Charlemagne appears 2b a national hero
3rd of May, 1808 (c. 1814) the leaders of an uprising vs. French in Spain Spanish=tragic heros central fig represents crucified christ no heroism in battle french soldiers look like mechanical slaughterers the deep recession into space= this type of brutality will never end
Napoleon as Mars the Peacemaker (1806) Canova was a friend to the Pope didn't really like Nap Nap= embarrassed by this statue + has it boxed up + sent away hes embarrased bc the statue emphasizes everything he lacks + the nudity= an added bonus eventually given to the Duke of Wellington
The Tetschen Altarpiece: Cross in the Mountains (1808) goal= to create something that could express the truth of god more clearly than spoken word the crucifix represented Germany who would once again be restored like Christ the evergreen trees and the ivy were symbolic of the undying hope of mankind
Ulysses Deriding Polyphemus (1829) reminds us that Nature, even when presenting itself as benevolent, hides a threatening pwr that will ultimately humble the pride of even the most heroic of men
The Fighting Temeraire (1838) hero of the Battle of Trafalgar > sign of the security of the Brit naval dominance by 1830s- no longer relevant > converted into a hulk its dissembly marked the end of a historical era steam boat: new steam pwr quickly replacing history + tradition
The Slave Ship (1840) was inspired after reading The History and Abolition of the Slave Trade Turner exhibited his painting during the anti-slavery conference, intending for Prince Albert=speaking @ the event, to see it + be moved to increase British anti-slavery efforts
The Haywain (1821) was owned by Constable's father its central feature three horses pulling a hay wain across the river the depiction of a common scene industrial rev= changing society; economy used to be based on agriculture but populations were moving to cities
Raft of the Medusa (1819) became a symbol of France, a country with lack of a leader the event became an international scandal >in part bc its cause= attributed to the incompetence of the captain perceived to be acting under the authority of the recently restored French monarchy
Kleptomania (1822) Dr. Georget believed that dementia was a modern disease and instructed Géricault to paint models representing different types of madness Géricault's works established a link between romantic art and empirical science
Massacre at Chios (1824) Became 1 of the most contested paintings of the 1824 Salon criticized for both its formal qualities + for its emphasis on agony + suffering no glorious event taking place, no patriots raising their swords in valor > only a disaster
Liberty Leading the People (1830) 3-day revolution in July 1830 > led to the overthrow of the gov't shows the allegorical fig of Liberty w/ a musket in her left hand + the tricolor in her right mound of corpses= Liberty's pedestal fighters are from a mixture of social classes
Women of Algiers (1834) Painting is claimed to be based on direct observation Delacroix received special permission to visit a harem + his painting= seen as a revelation not meant to be seen by Western eyes
The Sower (1849) suggests that, much like machines, peasants are valued only for the work they perform, not for their human individuality at the same time, this painting is proud and inspires respect
The Gleaners (1857) featuring in a sympathetic way what were then the lowest ranks of rural society received poorly by the French upper classes growing mvmt of Socialism worked to capture the true essence of what these women’s jobs were
The Stonebreakers (1849) suggests that those who are born poor will remain poor the artist's concern for the plight of the poor is evident hills almost reach top of painting: to isolate these laborers + to suggest that they are physically + economically trapped
The Painter’s Studio: A Real Allegory of 7 Years of My Life as an Artist (1855) the figs= all allegorical representations of various influences on Courbet's artistic life real- unpleasant truth allegory- story/idea expressed w/ symbols
The Awakening Conscience (1853) meant to be a modern foil of Light of the World remorse of a prostitute after she finishes with a wealthy young man: sees the light + beauty, suddenly sees the evil in her situation critics focused on how scandalous it was + not its moralizing meaning
A converted British family sheltering a Christian priest from the persecutions of the Druids (c. 1850) companion to Millais’s Christ in the House of His Parents early Christian history, showing families helping injured stressed the primitivism missionary hiding from a mob of pagan British Celts Red cross over Christian family hut
Christ in the House of His Parents (1850) Jesus +Joseph working on a door Jesus cuts his hand on a nail > foreshadows the crucifixion young John the Baptist washes his hand > symbolizes baptism controversial when 1st presented bc Jesus had never been placed in a room that was so dirty
The Annunciation (1850) title suggests that Mary just got the msg that she will give birth to the son of God by Gabriel limited colors (white-virginity; blue-represents Mary; red-Christ’s blood) flames at the feet of Angel Gabriel suggest classical influences
Concert in the Tuileries (1860) renovation of Paris Nap III park land in urban space upper class society; Manet=part of this social grp paints himself in the scene distant trees and people are sketchy seeds of impressionism mvmts + distance @ the same time
Dejeuner sur l’herbe (Luncheon on the Grass) (1863) submitted to the Salon Jury + refused Salon de Refuses - everything that was rejected proper women at this time didn't appear nude at a park since it was a painting it was very public negative publicity leads to Manet getting his name out there.
Olympia (1863) caused quite a stir recognized > high end prostitute ppl=aware of this stuff, but now confronted realist version of Venus of Urbino scandalous bc of sexual nature? doesn’t have the sexual quality like Venus of Urbino- prob lays around naked all day
The Execution of Maximilian (1868) Paints uniforms in western style whole Mexican uniform= black placed the blame of death on France > added white belts and shoes which French military wore final killer (if firing squad doesn’t work) has the Nap III facial hair similar to 3rd of May
Portrait of Emile Zola (1868) Greuze had Diderot; Courbet had Baudelaire; and Manet had Zola Japonisme flattening of perspective self-portrait w/o putting himself in it Zola turns Manet onto realism
Bar at the Folies-Bergere (1881) barmaid glances @ the viewer symbolized by man w/ droopy mustache bar=super pop @ the time has a bored expression on her face > she isn’t interestedin the man the essence of modernity=fleeting encounter contact that leaves no lasting impression
The Birth of Venus (1863) historical painter shown at the same Salon exhibition as Olympia Olympia causes problems where this painting does not blatant sexualization of her body she’s a Goddess, not a person so the sexual nature is ok
Grenouillere (1869) upper class leisure life swimming, not doing any kind of work at popular vacation space trees and water and painted quickly so things don’t change not a lot of detail and could not tell if isolated sections
Blvd des Capucines (1872) crowd of people at the bottom, far right-2 men leaning out very abstract everything from a far distance form is suggestive rather than delineated Impressionists=visually influenced by Turner not being clear on purpose.
Impression: Sunrise (1873) harbor of Le Havre=port city of Normandy sun rises behind a high horizon 2 rowboats in the water ghostlike forest in the bkgd loose, choppy brush strokes that up close look like nothing in particular but take a step back, the painting comes alive
The Loge (1874) very important work of the Impressionist movement the theatre was an important place to be and to be seen (big in Paris at the time) theatre as a social stage where class and relationships were on display
Moulin de la Galette (1876) popular cafe in a largely rural area of Paris large garden where young people danced during the summer to suggest the liveliness, he used short brush strokes of color. wanted the movement of light across the figures
Still-life with Apples (1875) considered the lowliest genre of its day most of canvas= left bare draws attention to the quality of the paint and canvas Cézanne was fascinated by optics and tried to reduce naturally occurring forms to their geometric essentials
Mt Ste Victoire (1890) a commanding presence over the country around it introduced subtle adjustments in order to avoid too simple a scheme evokes a deep, panoramic scene + the atmosphere that fills and unifies the space
Sunday on the Isle of La Grande Jatte (1884-1886) w/ Jatte, Seurat=acknowledged as the leader of new + rebellious Neo-Impressionism inspired by optical effects + perception contrasted small dots/brushstrokes of colors that when unified optically in the human eye were perceived as a single shade or hue
Night Café (1888) wildly contrasting, vivid colors many of the lines of the room leading toward the door in the back perspective looks somewhat downward toward the floor express the terrible passions of humanity by means of red and green
Starry Night (1889) thickly layered brushstrokes expression of the artist’s turbulent state-of-mind night landscapes=rare use of contrasting color and the complications of painting en plein air (outdoors) at night aspects from imagination and memory
Vision After the Sermon (1888) a scene from the Bible, Jacob wrestles an angel depicts this indirectly, thru vision the women see after a sermon inspired by Japanese woodblock prints idea of non-naturalistic landscapes harsh reds, blacks, and whites instead of natural color
Cain and His Family (1880) Historic biblical painting –Louis Enault (art critic) Homosapiens have evolved from earlier human Suggests they are less evolved than modern humans, depicted as Neanderthals
Created by: kepcarp