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Endocrine System

Flashcards from Powerpoint

Question & AnswerTerm & Definition
The endocrine system regulates long-term processes such as (4 things): -Growth -Development -Reproduction -Uses chemical messengers to relay information/instructions between cells
(Pituitary Hormones) ACTH (what does it stand for and what does it do?) -Adrenocorticotropic hormone -hormone that stimulates the production/secretion of glucocorticoids by the zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex -released by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
TSH (what does it stand for and what does it do?) 1. Thyroid-stimulating hormone 2. produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland 3. triggers secretion of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland
GH (what does it stand for and what does it do?) 1. Growth Hormone 2. anterior lobe of the pituitary gland hormone that stimulates tissue growth & anabolism when nutrients are available 3. restricts tissue glucose dependence when nutrients are in short supply
PRL (what does it stand for and what does it do?) 1. Prolactin 2. hormone that stimulates development of mammary glands in females 3. secretion of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
FSH (what does it stand for and what does it do?) 1. Follicle-stimulating hormone 2. hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland 3. stimulates oogenesis (female) & spermatogenesis (male)
LH (what does it stand for and what does it do?) 1. Luteinizing hormone 2. hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland 3. triggers ovulation (females) & stimulates testosterone secretion in testes
MSH (what does it stand for and what does it do?) 1. Melanocyte-stimulating hormone 2. hormone produced by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland 3. stimulates melanin & serotonin production
Hypothalamus (what 3 hormones are found here?) PRODUCES - ADH, OXT, & regulatory hormones
Pituitary Gland 1. What are the 2 lobes called? 2. (what hormones are found here?) Lobes: Anterior Lobe (adenohypophysis) - ACTH, TSH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, & MSH Posterior Lobe (neurohypophysis) - releases OXT & ADH *****RELEASES 9 PEPTIDE HORMONES*****
Pineal Gland (what hormones are found here?) Melatonin & Serotonin (sleep cycle stuff)
Parathyroid Glands (what is its location and what hormone is found here?) Location: posterior surface of the thyroid gland Hormone: PTH (parathyroid hormone)
Thyroid Gland (what 3 hormones are found here?) Thyroxine (T4) Triiodothyronine (T2) Calcitonin (CT)
Adrenal Gland (what two pieces are located here & what hormones are found in each?) ---Adrenal Medulla (stores lipids): secretes *Epinephrine (E) & *Norepinephrine (NE) ---Adrenal Cortex: *Cortisol *Corticosterone *Aldosterone (salt loving hormone) *Androgens (development)
Pancreatic Islets (what 2 hormones are found here?) Insulin & Glucagon
Heart (what hormones are found here?) hint: peptides Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP)
Thymus (what hormones are found here?) Thymosins (disease fighting T-cells)
Adipose Tissue (what hormones are found here?) Leptin (appetite & weight)
Digestive Tract secretes numerous hormones involved with system functions... *glucose (insulin) *metabolism & *appetite
Kidneys *Erythropoietin (EPO) - development of red blood cells *Calcitrol *produces the enzyme renin (helps with blood pressure)
Gonads (testes or ovaries) Males: androgens (aka testosterone - male sex hormone) & inhibin Females:estrogens, progesterone, & inhibin
What is calcitrol? A form of vitamin D
1. What are peptide hormones? 2. What 3 hormones are glycoproteins? 1. chains of amino acids 2. TSH, LH, FSH
What are Catecholamines? (SUPER IMPORTANT) Epinephrine (E) & Norepinephrine (NE) -NOT LIPID SOLUBLE -UNABLE TO PENETRATE PLASMA MEMBRANE
What is calcitonin? Bone development
Specific organs.... produce specific hormones
What is Paracrine communication? -means "beside" -most common form of intercellular communication (uses chemical signals for cell to cell within single tissues)
What is Endocrine communication? -means "within" -endocrine cells release chemicals (hormones) into the bloodstream & alters metabolic activities of many tissues and organs
What hormones fall under the "Amino acid derivatives" class? ---Adrenal Medulla: *Epinephrine (E) *Norepinephrine (NE) ---Thymus: *Thyroxine ---Pineal Gland: *Melatonin
1. What hormones fall under the "Peptide hormones" class? 2. What "organs" secrete the hormones within these classes? -chains of amino acids *Glycoproteins: TSH, LH, FSH *Short chain polypeptides: ADH, OXT *Small proteins: GH, PRL -Organs: *Hypothalamus, Heart, Thymus, Digestive tract, *Pancreas, & Posterior Lobe (pituitary gland) -NOT LIPID SOLUBLE
What hormones fall under the "Lipid derivatives" class? -Steroid hormones (comes from cholesterol): *Testes - androgens *Ovaries - estrogens, progestins *Cortex (adrenal glands) - corticosteroids *Kidneys - calcitrol ***ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE
What are "free hormones"? -broken down by enzymes/absorbed by cells in the liver or kidneys -diffuse from bloodstream & bind to receptors on target cells
What is "down-regulation"? -PRESENCE of hormone triggers DECREASE in # of hormone receptors -levels of hormone are HIGH = cells less sensitive
What is "up-regulation"? -ABSENCE of hormone triggers INCREASE in # of hormone receptors -levels of hormone are LOW = cells more sensitive
What is negative feedback mechanism? -maintaining homeostasis -takes stimulus & goes opposite (hot goes cold, cold goes hot)
Humoral stimuli: -changes composition of extracellular fluid
Hormonal stimuli: -arrival/removal of specific hormone
Neural stimuli: -arrival of neurotransmitters at neuroglandular junctions (hypothalamus to pituitary gland)
What does the adrenal medulla secrete? CATECHOLAMINES
__% of blood is water. __% of blood is plasma. __% of plasma is water. 50% of blood is water. 55% of blood is plasma. 90% of plasma is water.
Humoral process: (__ to __ to __) Humoral - hormone - fluid/blood
Hormonal process: (__to__to__) Hormonal - hormone - inhibit/excite & secrete/stimulate
Neural process: (__to__to__) Neural - hormone - hypothalamus (pituitary gland) & adrenal gland
HISTAMINE a compound that is released by cells in response to injury and in allergic and inflammatory reactions, causing contraction of smooth muscle and dilation of capillaries.
EPINEPHRINE (or adrenaline) is a hormone secreted by the medulla of the adrenal glands. Strong emotions such as fear or anger cause epinephrine to be released into the bloodstream, which causes an increase in heart rate, muscle strength, blood pressure, and metabolism.
What is another name for the pituitary gland? hypophysis (lies within sella turcica) -connected to the hypothalamus by the INFUNDIBULUM
What is another name for the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland? adenohypophysis
What do releasing hormones (RH) & inhibiting hormones (IH) do? (Hey, we use hormones to regulate homeostasis!) RH = stimulate synthesis and secretion of one or more hormones at anterior lobe IH = prevent synthesis and secretion of hormones from anterior lobe
What is another name for the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland? neurohypophysis
Oxytocin (2 things and what type of feedback?) -milk ejection & (uterine) labor contractions POSITIVE FEEDBACK
In children, thyroid hormones are essential to normal development of...? (3 things) 1. skeletal 2. muscular 3. nervous systems
What do C (clear) cells produce? calcitonin (CT) -regulates concentrations of calcium -inhibits osteoclasts
What does "troph" mean? to nourish
(Adrenal Cortex) "Zona glomerulosa": - what hormone does this secrete? produces mineralocorticoids - aldosterone (salt loving hormone) - TARGETS KIDNEYS
(Adrenal Cortex) "Zona fasciculata": - what hormone does this secrete? -produces glucocorticoids - cortisol -anti-inflammatory effects -secretion is regulated by negative feedback -TARGETS MOST CELLS
(Adrenal Cortex) "Zona reticularis": - what hormone does this secrete? -produces androgens -TARGETS MOST CELLS
What is the location of the pineal gland? next to the cerebellum
What is the location of the pancreas? What are the 2 endocrine functions? (secretes what?) -lies between the inferior border of the stomach and proximal portion of small intestine -the long looking gland -contains EXOCRINE & ENDOCRINE CELLS -2 endocrine functions are INSULIN and GLUCAGON
What does alkaline mean? ph scale - BASIC
What do alpha cells produce? glucagon
What do beta cells produce? insulin
What do delta cells produce? peptide hormone
1. Exocrine pancreas releases hormones into the_____: 2. Endocrine pancreas releases hormones into the _____: 1. digestive tract 2. bloodstream
1. When blood glucose levels rise, ____ cells...: 2. When blood glucose levels decline, ____ cells...: 1. beta cells, secrete insulin 2. alpha cells, release glucagon
Antagonistic effects: opposing
Synergistic effects: additive
Permissive effects: needs one hormone for another to produce effect
Integrative effects: hormones produce different/complementary results
What hormones are important to growth? (5 things) 1. Growth Hormone (GH) 2. Thyroid hormones (TH) 3. Insulin 4. (PTH) & calcitrol 5. Reproductive hormones
What are the 3 phases of the "stress response"? 1. Alarm phase (fight or flight) 2. Resistance phase (body starts changing) 3. Exhaustion phase (collapse of vital systems)
How can we stimulate growth hormones (GH)? -exercising promotes testosterone - helps reproduction
Created by: katiekee1992



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