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physio lab exp#11

Systemic Respiration and Spirometry

Respiratory system includes what? all organs involved in the delivery and exchange of gases between the air and the blood.
Respiratory system: passages conduct/deliver air to the lungs
Respiratory system: lungs where gas exchange takes place
air enters through the _____ ________ nasal cavity
The nasal passage: The anterior portion, the vestibule, has hairs (cilia) that do what? filter debris from the air you inspire
The nasal passage: Goblet cells, embedded in the nasal epithelium, do what? secrete mucus to filter the air.
The nasal passage: 3 basic functions Filtration of airborne particles/pathogens, Warms the air, and Humidifies the air.
Pharynx (throat) The cavity behind nasal passages and the mouth
What is unique about the pharynx? it is the anatomical region belonging to both the respiratory and digestive systems.
Breathing and swallowing must be coordinated by the ________. epiglottis
Larynx called "voice box" because it houses the vocal cords (Air enters the larynx and causes the vocal cords to vibrate, contributing to the formation of sounds)
Trachea called "windpipe" because it is a continuation of your air passage between your larynx and the bronchi.
What is the trachea lined with? a ciliated mucous membrane
What does the trachea consist of? a series of C-shaped cartilaginous rings attached by connective tissue.
the internal ridge where the trachea bifurcates into the left and right bronchi is called the _______ Carina
The trachea divides into right and left _________ ______. (Right is shorter, wider, more vertical) primary bronchi
The Right primary bronchi branches into _#_ secondary bronchi, each supplying one of the three lobes of the right lung three
The Left primary bronchi branches into _#_ secondary bronchi, each supplying one of the two lobes of the left lung 2
The secondary bronchi branch into the tertiary bronchi and the tertiary bronchi branch into the ________ bronchioles
What do the bronchioles give rise to? the alveoli, the actual site of gas exchange.
The lungs are bilaterally asymmetrical. why? the left lung is missing the intermediate lobe
Developmental cues disallow the left lung from growing earlier than the right and thus prevents the development of the intermediate lobe. Why? to leave room in the thorax for the heart
alveoli Balloon-like air sacs at terminating end of bronchioles
the walls of the alveoli consist of two types of cells: Squamous pulmonary epithelial cells, and Pneumocytes II(Septal Cells)
Pneumocytes II (Septal Cells) are interspersed between the squamous pulmonary epithelial cells, and produce a substance called surfactant. What is surfactant and what does it do? it's an oily substance which reduces surface tension in the alveoli, keeping them moist during expansion and recoil of the lungs.
The lungs are covered in two membranous layers called ______. pleura
What are these two pleura? visceral pleura and parietal pleura
Visceral pleura does what? covers and adheres to the lungs tightly
Parietal pleura does what? adheres to the thoracic wall and the diaphragm
In between the layers is a cavity called the pleural cavity. The cavity is fluid-filled for what two purposes? lubrication during respiratory movements and acts as a cushion during the respiratory process
Respiration mechanics: Air is moved in and out of the lungs by changing the volume of the lungs, thereby changing the __________ in your lungs relative to atmospheric (~760 mmHg) to move air as desired. pressure
Respiration mechanics: if the lung volume is decreased, then the air pressure is... air pressure is higher in the lungs than in the atmosphere and air moves out of the lungs
Respiration mechanics: if the lung volume is increased, then the air pressure is... air pressure is lower in the lungs than in the atmosphere and air is pulled into the lungs
Respiration mechanics: during inspiration, the rib cage moves ______ and the diaphragm moves _______ out, down
Respiration mechanics: during expiration, the rib cage moves ______ and the diaphragm moves _______ in, up
Respiration mechanics: The muscles involved are usually the ________ and the __________ muscles, which raise the ribs and push the sternum out diaphragm and the intercostal muscles
Respiration mechanics: Inspiration causes the intercostal muscles to _____. There's an increase in volume and decrease in pressure resulting in air being pulled in relax
Respiration mechanics: Expiration causes the intercostal muscles _______. There's a decrease in volume and an increase in pressure resulting in air being pushed out contract
“traumatic” pneumothorax air escapes into the pleural space due to a leak or puncture wound; lung collapses and compromises breathing.
“spontaneous” pneumothorax the lung collapses without a traumatic episode to the lung.
pneumothorax is a medical emergency! they cannot breath and cyanosis begins rapidly. How is this helped? a bore needle us used to decompress the pleural cavity
Spirometer an instrument used to measure lung respiratory volumes and capacities.
the spirometer utilizes a HEPA filter and mouthpiece. What does HEPA stand for? High Efficiency Particulate Air filter
Lung capacities: Tidal Volume (TV) the volume of air that moves in and out during normal breathing
Lung capacities: Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV) the amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal inhalation.
Lung capacities: Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV) the amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after a normal exhalation.
Lung capacities: Residual volume (RV) the amount of air that remains in the lungs after complete exhalation.
Lung capacities: Inspiratory Capacity (IC) the amount of air that can be forcibly inhaled after a normal quiet exhalation
Lung capacities: What is the formula for IC? IC = (TV + IRV)
Lung capacities: Vital Capacity (VC) The amount of air that can be forcibly exhaled after maximum inhalation.
Lung capacities: What is the formula for VC? VC = (ERV + IRV + TV) or VC = (ERV + IC)
Lung capacities: Total Lung Capacity (TLC) maximum amount of air contained in the lung after maximum inhalation.
Lung capacities: What is the formula for TLC? TLC = RV + ERV + TV + IRV or TLC = RV + VC
Blood-Buffer System: The Carbonic acid-bicarbonate Buffering system maintains physiological blood pH: ~7.4
Blood-Buffer System: What's the difference between how O2 and CO2 move through the blood? O2 needs a carrier to coordinate it in your red blood cells; CO2 diffuses freely into the blood and consequently the blood plasma
Blood-Buffer System: CO2 is combined with H2O to form what? carbonic acid, H2CO3
Blood-Buffer System: Enzyme that carries out this reaction is what? carbonic anhydrase
Blood-Buffer System: H2CO3 can dissociate in blood plasma depending on cellular needs. What would it dissociate into? bicarbonate (HCO3-) and protons (H+)
Blood-Buffer System: This reaction thus mediates the amount of dissolved ___ [H+].
Blood-Buffer System: There is no net gain in [H+], what does this mean for the pH in the blood? the pH is maintained in the blood.
Blood-Buffer System: What happens when the blood is too acidic? [H+] too high in plasma? the H+ will bind with the bicarbonate to form carbonic acid. This favors the forward reaction. H+ + HCO3- --> H2CO3
Blood-Buffer System: What happens when the blood is too basic? [H+] too low in plasma? the carbonic acid will dissociate to produce more H+. This favors the reverse reaction. H2CO3 --> H+ + HCO3-
Respiratory Terms: Hyperpnea Increased breathing
Respiratory Terms: Hypopnea Decreased breathing
Respiratory Terms: Dyspnea Difficult breathing
Respiratory Terms: Apnea Absence of breathing
Respiratory Terms: Hypoventilation results in the _________ of CO2 and thus an excessive accumulation of carbonic acid causing a _____ in blood pH called respiratory ______ retention, fall, acidosis
Respiratory Terms: Hyperventilation results in the excessive __________ of CO2 and thus in low carbonic acid and a ____ in pH called respiratory ______ elimination, rise, alkalosis
There are (3) respiration centers of the brain: Medullary Rhythmicity Center (MRC), Pneumotaxic Center (PC), and Apneustic Center (AC)
Medullary Rhythmicity Center (MRC) does what? controls the incidence and depth of breathing
Pneumotaxic Center (PC) does what? regulates the rate of breathing
Apneustic Center (AC) does what? plays a role in prolonged respiration
Created by: cmccartney2



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