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physio lab exp#10

The Cardiovascular System

QuestionAnswer
Electrocardiogram ECG: a noninvasive recording produced by an electrocardiographic device: a transthoracic interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over time captured and externally recorded by skin electrodes;
Conduction of the Heart: Impulses are initiated by what? the Sinoatrial Node in the upper right atrium. (Cells from this region are referred to as “pacemaker” cells)
Conduction of the Heart: As it passes to the ___________ Node, both atria contract; the signal is checked Atrioventricular (There is a slight delay at the AV node)
Conduction of the Heart: The impulse is passed to the where? it then divides into left and right Bundle branches. Bundle of His
Conduction of the Heart: Once it reaches the apex of the heart, it passes through the what? Purkinje Fibers
Conduction of the Heart: passing through the purkinje fibers causes what? the ventricles to contract
Components of the EKG: the P wave represents what? the spread of electrical activity over the atria after the initial depolarization of the SA node.
Components of the EKG: the QRS complex represents what? the spread of depolarization through the ventricular musculature plus a small amount of atrial repolarization; occurs simultaneously
Components of the EKG: the T wave represents what? the repolarization of the ventricular musculature
Components of the EKG: the U wave is thought to represent what? repolarization of the papillary muscles or Purkinje fibers
Components of the EKG: When does the U wave occur? after the T wave
Components of the EKG: A negative (inverted) U wave is seen in individuals with ____________ hypertension.
Components of the EKG: An inverted U wave after exercise is seen in individuals with _________ _______ ___________ coronary artery obstruction.
Components of the EKG: the PR interval is the time from... the beginning of one P wave to the beginning of the QRS complex
Components of the EKG: What does the PR interval represent? the beginning of atrial and ventricular depolarization
Components of the EKG: the QT interval is the time from... the beginning of the QRS complex to the end of the T wave
Components of the EKG: What does the QT interval represent? ventricular depolarization and repolarization.
Components of the EKG: ST segment is the time from... the end of the QRS complex to the beginning of the T wave
Components of the EKG: What happens during the ST segment? early ventricular repolarization is beginning very slowly.
Cardiac Cycle: one complete heartbeat during which both atria and ventricles contract and then relax.
the time the cardiac cycle occurs is from the beginning of the first __ wave to the beginning of the next __ wave P
heart valves insure what? ensure that blood flows unidirectionally from atria to ventricles.
there are two types of heart valves: 1. Atrioventricular 2. Semilunar
What are the two atrioventricular valves? tricuspid valve and bicuspid (mitral) valve
the tricuspid valve is located where? between the right atrium and the right ventricle
the bicuspid (mitral) valve is located where? between the left atrium and left ventricle
What are the two semilunar valves? aortic valve and pulmonary valve
Aortic valve guards which opening? the opening between the left ventricle and the aorta
Pulmonary valve guards which opening? the opening between the right ventricle and the pulmonary trunk
What are two types of heart murmurs? stenosis and incompetence
heart murmur: Stenosis narrowing or stiffening of the heart valves
when one of your valves is stenosed or narrowed, what happens to your blood flow and heart? there is resistance to your blood flow and your heart has to work harder to get blood through it
heart murmur: Incompetence the valves do not close completely
an incompetent valve causes your heart to do what? pump more blood than before because a proportion regurgitates back into your heart
Heart murmurs can be “innocent,” showing no symptoms to mild chest pain they can also be “severe,” showing signs of what? fatigue, shortness of breath, coughing, irregular heartbeats, or syncopic episodes (the murmur may need to be surgically corrected.)
What does a heart murmur sound like? lub dub swish
Blood Flow: deO2 blood from SYSTEMIC circulation arrives where? inferior/superior vena cava
Blood Flow: deO2 blood from SYSTEMIC circulation arrives where? inferior/superior vena cava
Blood Flow: the blood then flows through the ________ valve into the right ventricle; deO2 blood tricuspid
Blood Flow: the deO2 blood then enters what? the right ventricle
Blood Flow: then, the blood flows into the pulmonary trunk through the ________ valve; deO2 blood pulmonary
Blood Flow: the blood then flows through the ________ valve into the right ventricle; deO2 blood tricuspid
Blood Flow: Blood flows through the _________ ______ in route to the lungs pulmonary arteries
Blood Flow: then, the blood flows into the pulmonary trunk through the ________ valve; deO2 blood pulmonary
Blood Flow: What is unique about the pulmonary artery? it is the ONLY artery that carries deO2 blood
Blood Flow: Blood flows through the _________ ______ in route to the lungs pulmonary arteries
Blood Flow: O2 and CO2 exchange occur in the ________ of the lungs alveoli
Blood Flow: What is unique about the pulmonary artery? it is the ONLY artery that carries deO2 blood
Blood Flow: Blood returns back to the heart through the __________ _____ pulmonary vein
Blood Flow: O2 and CO2 exchange occur in the ________ of the lungs alveoli
Blood Flow: The pulmonary vein contains what kind of blod? OXYGENATED blood!
Blood Flow: Blood returns back to the heart through the __________ _____ pulmonary vein
Blood Flow: the oxygenated blood then enters what? the left atrium
Blood Flow: The pulmonary vein contains what kind of blod? OXYGENATED blood!
Blood Flow: Blood flows through the _______ valve into the left ventricle; O2 bicuspid, (mitral)
Blood Flow: the oxygenated blood then enters what? the left atrium
Blood Flow: Blood flows through the ______ valve in route to the systemic circulation; O2 aortic
Blood Flow: Blood flows through the _______ valve into the left ventricle; O2 bicuspid, (mitral)
Blood Flow: Then what? they cycle begins again
Blood Flow: Blood flows through the ______ valve in route to the systemic circulation; O2 aortic
There is no mixing of blood in the heart due to what? the systemic and pulmonary circuits
Blood Flow: Then what? they cycle begins again
Normal Sinus Rhythm: normal heartbeat; heart rate = 60-100 bpm
There is no mixing of blood in the heart due to what? the systemic and pulmonary circuits
Normal Sinus Rhythm: normal heartbeat; heart rate = 60-100 bpm
In athletes _________ may be normal! bradycardia
Sinus Tachycardia: fast heartbeat; more QRS complexes seen; heart rate = 100-160 bpm
Atrial Fibrillation: atria are very irritable causing them to depolarize, (quiver), rapidly and repeatedly.
Sinus Bradycardia: slow heartbeat; less QRS complexes seen; heart rate = or <60 bpm
Atrial Fibrillation: The atrial rhythm is chaotic and immeasurable; Characteristic findings are the absence of __ waves, with unorganized electrical activity in their place. P
In athletes _________ may be normal! bradycardia
Atrial Fibrillation: Electrical _________ is used to restore normal sinus rhythm using defibrillator paddles. cardioversion
Atrial Fibrillation: atria are very irritable causing them to depolarize, (quiver), rapidly and repeatedly.
Ventricular Fibrillation: a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly
Atrial Fibrillation: The atrial rhythm is chaotic and immeasurable; Characteristic findings are the absence of __ waves, with unorganized electrical activity in their place. P
Ventricular Fibrillation: ECG components show an irregular, undulating baseline without any electrical evidence of what? organized ventricular activity.
Atrial Fibrillation: Electrical _________ is used to restore normal sinus rhythm using defibrillator paddles. cardioversion
Ventricular Fibrillation: Life and death medical emergency! The condition can often be reversed by cardioversion using defibrillator paddles but is not always successful. What two things may develop? Cyanosis and ischemia develop.
Ventricular Fibrillation: a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly
cyanosis A bluish color of the skin and the mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood
Ventricular Fibrillation: ECG components show an irregular, undulating baseline without any electrical evidence of what? organized ventricular activity.
ischemia a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
Ventricular Fibrillation: Life and death medical emergency! The condition can often be reversed by cardioversion using defibrillator paddles but is not always successful. What two things may develop? Cyanosis and ischemia develop.
Blood pressure The pressure exerted by the blood on the interior walls of vessels
cyanosis A bluish color of the skin and the mucous membranes due to insufficient oxygen in the blood
Blood pressure is measured with a Stethoscope and a Sphygmomanometer. What does this measure? the direct pressure of the brachial artery in mmHg.
ischemia a restriction in blood supply to tissues, causing a shortage of oxygen and glucose needed for cellular metabolism (to keep tissue alive).
reading blood pressure: the _______ is the numerator and the ________ is the denominator systolic, diastolic
Blood pressure The pressure exerted by the blood on the interior walls of vessels
Blood pressure is measured with a Stethoscope and a Sphygmomanometer. What does this measure? the direct pressure of the brachial artery in mmHg.
Blood Pressure: systole ventricular contraction (numerator)
Blood Pressure: diastole ventricular relaxation (denominator)
Blood Pressure: The sounds that medical personnel listen for when they are taking blood pressure using a non-invasive procedure are referred to _________ sounds Korotkoff
a pulse is a rhythmical throbbing caused by what? by regular contraction and alternate expansion of an artery as the wave of blood passes through a vessel as after each heartbeat
Mean Arterial Blood Pressure (MAP) the average blood pressure between systolic and diastolic pressure in the aorta.
Cardiac Output (CO) the amount of blood pumped by the heart per minute.
Peripheral Vascular Resistance (PVR) the total resistance against which blood must be pumped
Formula for mean arterial blood pressure (MAP)? MAP = CO x PVR
Heart rate (HR) the number of times the heart beats per minute
Stroke volume (SV) the volume of blood pumped during each cardiac cycle
Formula for cardiac output (CO)? CO = HR x SV
SV= (end-diastolic volume) – (end-systolic volume)
End-diastolic volume: (example) blood flows from atria to ventricles; increases to ~125ml
End-systolic volume: (example) ventricles partially empty during systole; decreases to ~55ml
using the example, calculate SV SV = 125 – 55 = 70ml
What is the formula for Cardiac Reserve (CR)? CR = COexercise – COrest
What is the relationship between CR and ability to exercise? The greater the person’s CR, the greater his or her capacity for doing exercise!
Created by: cmccartney2