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Stack #190643

Literature terms

alliteration the repetition of 2 or more consonant sounds in successive words in a line of verse or prose. It was a central feature of Anglo-Saxon poetry and is still used by contemporary writers (ex "cool cats")
assonance The repetition of 2 or more vowel sounds in successive words, which creates a ind of rhyme. Assonance may be used to focus attention, on key words or concepts. Also helps make a phrase or line mor ememorable.
connotation An association or additional meaning that a word, image or phrase may carry, apart from its literal denotation or dictionary definition.
denotation The literal dictionary meaning of a word
epic a long narrative poem usually composed in an elevated style tracing the adventures of a legendary or mythic hero. Usually written in a consistent form and meter throughout. Ex. Homer - Iliad & Odyssey
epiphancy a moment of insight, discovery, or revelation by which a characters life is greatly altered. Usually occurs near the end fo a story. 1st used in Christian theology to signify the manifestation of God's presence in the world.Means "showing forth" in Greek.
genre a conventional combination of literacy form and subject matter, usually aimed at creating certain effects.
lyric a short poem expressing the thoughts and feelings of a single speaker. Often written in the first person, lyric poetry traditionally has a songlike immediacy and emotional force.
monologue an extended speach by a single character. Originated in drama, means a solo speech to an audience.
motivation what a character in a sotry or drama wants. Can be either explicit (reasons stated in story) or implicit (hinted or only partially revealed)
motif An elemnt that recurs alot throughout a narrative. Can be an image, idea, theme, situation, or action. Can also refer to an element that recurs across many literary works. (beautiful lady turns into evil fairy..etc)
narrative a poem that tells a story. One of 4 traditional modes of poetry.
onomatopoeia a literary device that attempts to represent a thing or action (crash, bang, pitter-patter)
persona latin for mask. A fictitious character created y an author to be the speaker of a poem, story or novel. It is always the narrator of the work and not merely a character in it.
setting the time and place of a literary work. May also include the climate and even the social, psychological or spiritual state of the participants.
subgenres **
novel an extende work of fictional prose, narrative. Usually implies a book length narrative. Usually has more characters, more varied scenes, and a broaer coverage of time than a short story.
fiction from the Latin "ficio" or act of fashioning, a shaping, a making. Any literary work that is not bound by factual accuracy.
nonfiction true
apprenticeship novel or "bildungsroman" German for "novel of growth and development". The genre depicts a youth who struggles toward maturity forming a worldview or philosophy of live. (David Copperfield)
epic novel **
epistolary novel novel in which the story is told by way of letters written by one or more of the characters. Often leads to authenticity to the story.
picaresque a type of narrative, usually a novel that presents the life of a likable scoundrel who is at odds with respectable society. Rarely has a tight plot. Adventures tricking the rich and gullible.
novella longer than a short story, shoreter than a novel. (30,000-50,000 words). Long enought o b published as a short book.
subplot double plot. Familiar in Elizabethan drama. A 2nd story line. (Othello)
plot the particular arrangement of actions, events, and situations, that unfold in a narrative.
foreshadowing in plot construction, the technique of arranging events and information in such a way that later events are prepared for, or shadowed beforehand. The author may introduce specific words, images etc in order to suggest significant later events.
conflict In Greek "agon" or contest. The central struggle between two or more forces in a story. The basic material of which ia plot is made.
man vs. manman vs. natureman vs. societyman vs. self **
rising action that part of the play or narrative, including the exposition, in which events start moving toward a climax
crisis the point in a drama when the crucial action, decision or realization must be made, marking the turning poing or reversal of the protagonists fortunes
climax the moment of greatest intensity in a story which almost inevidently occurs toward the end o fthe story
falling action the events in a narrative that follow the climax and bring the story to its conclusion, or denourment.
characterization the techniques a writer uses to create, reveal, or develop the characters in a narative
protagonist the cental character in a literary work. Usually initiates the main action of the story, often in conflict with the antagonist.
antagonist the most significatnt characters or force that opposes the protagonist in a narrative or drama. The antagonist may be another character, society itself, a force of nature or even conflicting impluses within the protagonist.
foil *
flat character a term coined by English novelist EM Forster to describe a character with only one outstanding trait. Often base on stock characters.
round character coined by EM Forster to describe a complex character who is presented in depth and detail in a narrative. Change significantly, driving course of narrative. Central characters.
point of view the perspective from which a story is told. 1st person narrative in which narrator is a participant in action.3rd person- narrator is a non participant
3rd person narrative-total omniscience narrator knows everythin about all the characters and events in the story.
limited omniscience-3rd person limited point of view the narrator sees into the minds of some but not all the characters. Author can compromise between the immedicacy of 1st person narration and the movility of 3rd person
objective (or dramatic) point of view the narrator merely reports dialoge and action with minimal interpretation or access to the characters minds. It uses prose fiction to approximate the methods of plays
irony a literary device which a discrepancy of meaning is masked beneath the surface of the language. 1. verbal - in words; 2. situational -something is about to happen that is opposite of what is expected
dramatic irony a special kind of suspenseful expectation, when the audience or reader understands the implication and meaning of a situation onstage and foresees the oncoming disaster (in tragedy) or triumph (in comedy) but the character does not
apostrophe a direct address to someone or something. A speaker may address an inanimate object, a dead or absent person, an abstract thing or spirit. OFten used to provide a speaker with the means to articulate thoughts aloud.
conceit a poetic device using elaborate comparisons such as equating a loved one with the graces and beauties of the world. Most notable used by Italian poet Petrach in praise of his beloved Laura. Come from Italian word "concept" or "idea"
hyperbole overstatement, exaggeration to emphasize the point
metaphor a statement that 1 thing is something else, which in a literal sense, it is not.By asserting that a thing is something else,a metaphor creates a close assoc. 'tween 2 entities & underscores some important similarity between them. ex: Joe is a pig."
metonymy figure of speech in which the name of a thing is substituted for that of another closely associated with it. Ex: "The White House decided" one could mean the President.
paradox a statement that at first strikes one as self contradictory, but that on reflection reveals some deeper sense. Paradox is often achieved by a play on words.
personification figure of speech in which a thing, animal or abstract term is endowed with human characteristics. It allows an author to dramatize the nonhuman world in tangible human terms.
simile comparison of 2 things ___is like ___. Uses "like" "as" "than" "resembles"
synecdoche the use of a significant part of a thing to stand for the whole of it or visa-versa. To say "wheels" for "car" or rhyme for poetry.
transferred epithat a figure of speech in which the poet attributes characteristics of a ting to another thing closely associated with it. it is a kind of metatonymy. Usually places and adj. next to a noun inwhich the connecttion is not strictly logical.(blind mouths)
understatement an ironic figure of speech that deliberately describes something in a way that is less than the true case.
diction word choice or vocabulary. Refers to the class of words than an author decides is appropriate to use in a particular work. -concrete -abstract
time/moode the attitude toward a subject conveyed ina literary work. The net resulf of various elements. Playful, sarcastic, sad...etc
symbolism *
theme a general recurring subject or diea conspicuously evient in a literary work. Longer works may contain multiple themes.
imagery the collective set of images in a poem or other literar work
allegory a narratve in verse or prose in which the literal events consistently point ot a paralle sequesnce of symbolic ideas. Often used to dramatize abstract ideas, historical events, political issues. 2 levels of meaning: literal and symbolic
allusion a brief reverence in a text to a person, place or ting. Ficticious or actual
aside in drama a few words or short passage spoken in an undertone or to the audience. By convection, other characters onstage are deaf to the aside
convention any established feathure or technique in literature that is commonly understood by both authors and readers. Something generally agreed on to be appropriate for its customary uses. "Once upon a time"
dialogue the direct representation of the conversation between 2 or more characters
deus ex machina Latin for "a god from a machine" Greek playwriter frequent use of a god lowered from ceiling
flashback relived in characters memory
foreshadowing events shadowed beforehand
in medias res Latin "in the midst of things" Beginning a story midway in the events it depictss
satire *
soliloquy speech by character to talks to himself
sonnet "little song" in Italian. Verse form popular form love poetry. 14 lines written in iambic pentameter 8 lines then 6 lines
Created by: lymbow



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