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ADM2336

TermDefinition
Organizational Behavior a field of study devoted to understanding, explaining, and ultimately improving the attitudes and behaviors of individuals and groups in organizations
Human Resources Management field of study that focuses on the application of OB theories and principles in organizations
Strategic Management field of study devoted to exploring the product choices and industry characteristics that affect an organization's profitability
Scientific Management using scientific methods to design optimal and efficient work processes and tasks
Bureaucracy an organizational form that emphasizes the control and coordination of its members
Human Relations Movement field of study that recognizes that the psychological attributes of individual workers and the social forces within work groups have important effects on work behaviors
Individual Outcomes job performance and organizational commitment
Individual Mechanisms job satisfaction, stress, motivation, trust and ethics, decision making and learning
Job satisfaction what employees feel when they think about their jobs
Stress reflects employees' psychological responses to job demands that tax their capacities
Motivation energetic forces that drive employees' work effort
Trust, justice, ethics reflect the degree to which employees feel that their company conducts business with fairness, honesty and integrity
Learning & Decision Making deals with how employees gain job knowledge and how they use that knowledge to make accurate judgments on the job
Organizational Mechanisms organizational culture and change, organizational structure
Resource-based view a model that argues that rare and inimitable resources help firms maintain competitive advantage
Rule of 1/8 the belief that at best 1/8, or 12%, of organizations will actually do what is required to build profits by putting people first
Job Performance employee behaviors that contribute either positively or negatively to the accomplishment of organizational goals
Task Performance employee behaviors that are directly involved in the transformation of organizational resources into the goods or services that the organization produces
Routine Task Performance well-known or habitual responses by employees to predictable task demands
Adaptive Task Performance thoughtful responses by an employee to unique or unusual task demands
Creative Task Performance ideals or physical outcomes that are both novel and useful
Job Analysis the process by which an organization determines requirements of a specific job
National Occupational Classification a national database of occupations in Canada, organizing over 30,000 job titles into 520 occupational group descriptions
Citizenship behavior voluntary employee behaviors that contribute to organizational goals by improving the context in which work takes place
Interpersonal Citizenship Behavior going beyond normal expectations to assist, support, and develop co-workers and colleagues
Helping assisting co-workers who have heavy loads, aiding with personal matters, and showing new employees how things work
Courtesy sharing important information with co-workers
Sportsmanship maintaining a positive attitude with co-workers through good and bad times
Organizational Citizenship Behavior going beyond normal expectations to improve operations of the organization, as well as defending the organization and being loyal to it
Voice speaking up to offer constructive suggestions for change, often in reaction to a negative work event
Civic virtue participation in company operations at a deeper-than-normal level
Boosterism positively representing the organization when in public
Counterproductive beahvior employee behaviors that intentionally hinder organizational goal accomplishment
Property deviance behaviors that harm the organization's assets and possessions
Sabotage purposeful destruction of equipment, processes, and products
Theft stealing company products or equipment from an organization
Production Deviance intentionally reducing organizational efficiency of work output
Wasting resources using too many materials or too much time to do too little work
Substance abuse the abuse of alcohol or drugs before coming to work or while on the job
Political Deviance behaviors that intentionally disadvantage other individuals
Gossiping casual conversations about other people in which the facts are not confirmed as true
Incivility communication that is rude, impolite, discourteous, and lacking in good manners
Personal Aggression hostile verbal and physical actions directed toward other employees
Harrassment unwanted physical contact or verbal remarks from a colleague
Abuse employee assault or endangerment from which physical and psychological injuries may occur
Management by Objectives a management philosophy that bases employee evaluations on whether specific performance goals have been met
Behaviorally anchored rating scales use of examples of critical incidents to evaluate an employee's job performance behaviors directly
360-degree Feedback a performance evaluation system that uses ratings provided by supervisors, co-workers, subordinates, customers, and the employees themselves
Forced Ranking a performance management system in which managers rank subordinates relative to one another
Organizational Commitment an employee's desire to remain a member of an organization
Withdrawal Behavior employee actions that are intended to avoid work situations
Affective Commitment an employee's desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of obligation
Continuance Commitment an employee's desire to remain a member of an organization due to an awareness of the costs of leaving
Normative Commitment an employee's desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of obligation
Focus of Commitment the people, places, and things that inspire a desire to remain a member of an organization due to a feeling of obligation
Erosion Model a model that suggests that employees with fewer bonds with co-workers are more likely to quit the organization
Social Influence Model a model that suggests that employees with direct linkages to co-workers who leave the organization will themselves become more likely to leave
Embeddedness an employee's connection to and sense of fit in the organization and community
Exit a response to a negative work event in which one becomes often absent from work or voluntarily leaves the organization
Voice a response, often in reaction to a negative work event, in which an employee offers constructive suggestions for change
Loyalty a passive response to a negative work event in which one publicly supports the situation but privately hopes for improvement
Neglect a passive, destructive response to a negative work event in which one's interest and effort in work decline
Psychological Withdrawal mentally escaping the work environment
Daydreaming a form of psychological withdrawal in which one's work is interrupted by random thoughts or concerns
Socializing a form of psychological withdrawal in which one verbally chats with co-workers about non-work topics
Looking busy a form of psychological withdrawal in which one attempts to appear consumed with work when not performing actual work tasks
Moonlighting a form of psychological withdrawal in which employees use work time and resources to do non-work-related activities
Cyberloafing a form of psychological withdrawal in which employees surf the internet, email, and instant message in order to avoid doing work related activities
Physical withdrawal a physical escape from the work environment
Tardiness a form of physical withdrawal in which employees arrive late to work or leave work early
Long breaks a form of physical withdrawal in which employees take longer than normal lunches or breaks to spend less time at work
Missing meetings a form of physical withdrawal in which employees neglect important work functions while away from the office
Absenteeism a form of physical withdrawal in which employees do not show up for an entire day of work
Quitting a form of physical withdrawal in which employees voluntarily leave the organization
Independent forms model a model that predicts that the various withdrawal behaviors are uncorrelated, so that engaging in one type of withdrawal has little bearing on engaging in other types
Compensatory Forms Model a model indicating that the various withdrawal behaviors are negatively correlated, so that engaging in one type of withdrawal makes one less likely to engage in other types
Progression Model a model indicating that the various withdrawal behaviors are positively correlated, so that engaging in one type of withdrawal makes one more likely to engage in other types
Psychological Contracts employee beliefs about what employees owe the organization and what the organization owes them
Transactional Contracts psychological contracts that focus on a narrow set of specific monetary obligations
Relational Contracts psychological contracts that focus on a broad set of open-ended and subjective obligations
Organizational Support the degree to which employees believe that the organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being
Job Satisfaction a pleasurable emotional state resulting from the appraisal one one's job or job experiences; represents how a person feels and things about his or her job
Values things that people consicously or unconsciously want to seek or attain
Value-Precept Theory a theory that argues that job satisfaction depends on whether the employee perceives that his/her job supplies those things that he/she values
Common Facets of the Value Precept Theory pay, promotions, supervision, co-workers, the work itself, altruism, status, environment
Pay Satisfaction employees' feelings about the compensation for their job
Promotion Satisfaction employees' feelings about how the company handles promotions
Supervision Satisfaction employees' feelings about their boss, including his or her competency
Co-worker Satisfaction employees' feelings about their co-workers, including their abilities and personalities
Satisfaction with the Work Itself employees' feelings about their actual work tasks
Meaningfulness of work a psychological state indicating the degree to which work tasks are viewed as something that counts in the employee's system of phiolsophies and beliefs
Responsibility for Outcomes a psychological state indicating the degree to which employees feel they are key drivers of the quality of work output
Knowledge of Results a psychological state indicating the extent to which employees are aware of how well or how poorly they are doing
Job Characteristics Theory a theory that argues that five core characteristics combine to result in high levels of satisfaction with the work itself
Variety the degree to which a job requires different activities and skills
Identity the degree to which a job offers completion of a whole, identifiable piece of work
Significance the degree to which a job really matters and impacts society as a whole
Autonomy the degree to which a job allows individual freedom and discretion regarding how the work is to be done
Feedback the degree to which the job itself provides information about how well the job holder is doing
Knowledge and skill the degree to which employees have aptitude and competence needed to succeed on their job
Growth need strength the degree to which employees desire to develop themselves further
Job Enrichment when job duties and responsibilities are expanded to provide increased levels of core job characterisics
Life Satisfacton the degree to which employees feel a sense of happiness with their lives in general
Job Descriptive Index a face measure of job satisfaction that assesses an individual's satisfaction with pay, promotion opportunities, supervision, co-workers, and the work itself
Stress the psychological response to demands when there is something at stake for the individual, and when coping with these demands would tax or exceed the individual's capacity or resources
Stressors demands that cause the stress response
Strains negative consequences of the stress response
Transactional Theory of Stress a theory that explains how stressful demands are perceived and appraised, as well as how people respond to the perceptions of appraisals
Primary Appraisal evaluation of whether a demand is stressful and, if it is, the implications of the stressor in terms of personal goals and well-being
Benign Job Demands job demands that are not appraised as being stressful
Hindrance Stressors stressors that tend to be appraised as thwarting progress toward growth and achievement
Challenge Stressors stressors that tend to be appraised as opportunities for growth and achievement
Work Hindrance Stressors role conflict, role ambiguity, role overload, daily hassles
Work Challenge Stressors time pressure, work complexity, work responsibility
Non-work Hindrance Stressors work-family conflict, negative life events, financial uncertaintly
Non-work Challenge Stressors family time demands, personal development, positive life events
Secondary Appraisal when people determine how to cope with the various stressors they face
Coping behaviors and thoughts used to manage stressful demands and the emotions associated with the stressful demands
Types of Coping behavioral coping, cognitive coping, problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping
Physiological Strains reactions from stressors that harm the human body
Psychological Strains negative psychological reactions from stressors
Behavioral Strains patterns on negative behaviors that are associated with other strains
Type A Behavior Pattern people who tend to experience more stressors, to appraise more demands as stressful, and to be prone to experiencing more strains
Social Support the help people receive from others when they are confronted with stressful demands
Stress Audit an assessment of the sources of stress in the workplace
Job Sharing when two people share the responsibilities of a single job
Sabbatical employees get time off to do something else
Motivation a set of energetic forces that determine the direction, intensity, and persistence of an employee;s work effort
Engagement a widely used term in contemporary workplaces that has different meanings depending on the context
Expectancy Theory a theory that describes the cognitive process employees go through to make choices among different voluntary responses
Expectancy the belief that exerting a high level of effort will result in successful performance on some task
Self-Efficacy the belief that a person has the capabilities needed to perform the behaviors required some task
Instrumentality the belief that successful performance will result in some outcome or outcomes
Valence the anticipated value of outcome(s) associated with successful performance
Extrinsic Motivation desire to put forth work effort due to some contingency that depends on task performance
Intrinsic Motivation desire to put forth work effort due to the sense that task performance serves as its own reward
Meaning of Money the idea that money can have symbolic value in addition to economic value
Goal Setting Theory a theory that views goals as the primary drivers of the intensity and persistence of effort
Specific and Difficult Goals goals that stretch an employee to perform at his or her maximum level while still staying within the boundaries of his/her ability
Self-Set Goals the internalized goals that people use to monitor their own progress
3 Variables of Goals feedback, task complexity, goal commitment
Equity Theory a theory that suggests employees create a mental ledger of the outcomes they receive for their job inputs, relative to some comparison other
Equity Distress an internal tension that results from being overrewarded or underrewarded relative to some comparison other
Cognitive Distortion a re-evaluation of the inputs an employee brings to a job, often occurring in response to equity distress
Psychological Empowerment an energy rooted in the belief that tasks are contributing to some larger purpose
Trust the willingness to be vulnerable to an authority based on positive expectation about the authority's actions and intentions
Justice the perceived fairness of an authority's decision making
Ethics the degree to which the behaviors of an authority are in accordance with generally accepted moral norms
Four Dimensions of Justice distributive, procedural, interpersonal, informational
Corporate Social Responsibility a perspective that acknowledges that the responsibility of a business encompasses the economic, legal, ethical and citizenship expectations of society
Learning a relatively permanent change in an employee's knowledge or skill that results from experience
Decision Making the process of generating and choosing from a set of alternatives to solve a problem
Expertise the knowledge and skills that distinguish experts from novices
Explicit Knowledge knowledge that is easily communicated and available to everyone
Tacit Knowledge knowledge that employees can only learn through experience
Increasing Desired Behaviors positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement
Decreasing Undesired Behaviors punishment, extinction
Social Learning Theory theory that argues that people in organizations learn by observing others
Behavior Modeling when employees observe the actions of others, learn from what they observe, and then repeat the observed behavior
Programmed Decision decision that is made somewhat automatically because the decision maker's knowledge allows him or her to recognize the situation and the course of action to be taken
Intuition an emotional judgement based on quick, unconscious gut feelings
Crisis Situation a change, sudden or evolving, that results in an urgent problem that must be addressed immediately
Non-programmed Decisions decisions made by employees when a problem is new, complex, or not recognized
Bounded Rationality the notion that people do not have the ability or the resources to process all available information and alternatives when making a decision
Satisficing what a decision maker is doing who chooses the first acceptable alternative considered
Selective Perception the tendency for people to see their environment only as it affects them and as it is consistent with their expectations
Projection Bias the faulty perception by decision makers that others think, feel and act as they do
Social Identity Theory a theory that people identify themselves according to the various groups to which they belong and judge others according to the groups they associate with
Availability Bias the tendency for people to base their judgements on information that is easier to recall
Fundamental Attribution Error the tendency for people to judge others' behaviors as a being due to internal factors such as ability, motivation or attitudes
Self-serving bias when one attributes one's own failures to external factors and success to internal factors
Consensus whether other individuals behave the same way under similar circumstances
Distinctiveness whether the person being judged acts in a similar fashion under different circumstances
Consistency whether this individual has behaved this way before under similar circumstances
Escalation of Commitment a common decision making error, in which the decision maker continues to follow a failing course of action
Personality the structures and propensities inside a person that explain his or her characteristic patterns of thought
Traits recurring trends in people's responses to their environment
Ability relatively stable capabilities of people for performing a particular range of related activities
Big Five Factor Model of Personality conscientiousness, agreeableness, neuroticism, openess to experience, extraversion
Cognitive Ability capabilities related to the acquisition and application of knowledge in problem solving
Emotional Intelligence a set of abilities related to the understanding and use of emotions that affect social functioning
Self-Awareness the ability to recognize and understand the emotions in oneself
Emotional Regulation the ability to recover quickly from emotional experiences
Use of Emotions the degree to which people can harness emotions and employ them to improve their chances of being successful in whatever they are seeking to do
Typical Performance performance in routine conditions that surround daily job tasks
Maximum Performance performance in brief, special circumstances that demand a person's best effort
Team two or more people who work interdependently over some time period to accomplish common goals related to some task-oriented purpose
Work Teams a relatively permanent team in which members work together to produce goods and/or provide services
Management Team a relatively permanent team that participates in managerial level tasks that affect the entire organization
Parallel Team a team composed of members from various jobs within the organization that meets to provide recommendations about important issues
Project Team a team formed to take on one-time tasks, most of which tend to be complex and require input from members from different functional areas
Action Team a team of limited duration that performs complex tasks in contexts that tend to be highly visible and challenging
Virtual Team a team in which the members are geographically dispersed, and interdependent activity occurs though email, web conferencing, and instant messaging
Stages of team development forming, storming, norming, performing, adjourning
Task Interdependence the degree to which team members interact with and rely on other team members for information, materials, and resources needed to accomplish work for the team
Goal Interdependence the degree to which team members have a shared goal and aligh their individual goals with that vision
Outcome Interdependence the degree to which team members share equally in the feedback and rewards that result from the team achieving its goals
Team Composition the mix of the various characteristics that describe the individuals who work in the team
5 Aspects of Team Composition member roles, member ability, member personality, team diversity, team size
Team Process the different types of activities and interactions that occur within a team as the team works towards its goals
Process Gain when team outcomes are greater than expected based on the capabilities of the individual members
Process Loss loss considered to have occurred when team outcomes are less than expected in view of the capabilities of the individual members
Communication the process by which information and meaning is transferred from a sender to a receiver
Factors of Communication noise, competence, gender, information richness, network structure
Types of Network Structure all channel, Y, Circle, Wheel
Power the ability to influence the behavior of others and resist unwanted influence in return
2 Sources of Power organizational and personal power
Legitimate Power a form of organizational power based on authority or position
Reward Power a form of organizational power based on the control of resources or benefits
Coercive Power a form of organizational power based on the control of punishment within an organization
Expert Power a form of organizational power based on expertise or knowledge
Referent Power a form of organizational power based on the attractiveness and charisma of the leader
Contingencies of Power substitutability, discretion, centrality, visibility
Influence the use of behaviors to cause behavioral or attitudinal changes in others
Rational Persuasion the use of logical arguments and hard facts to show someone that a request is worthwhile
Consultation an influence tactic whereby the target is allowed to participate in deciding how to carry out or implement a request
Inspirational Appeal an influence tactic designed to appeal to one's values and ideals, thereby creating an emotional or attitudinal reaction
Collaboration an influence tactic whereby the leader makes it easier for the target to complete a request by offering to work with and help the target
Ingratiation the use of favors, compliments, or friendly behavior to make the target feel better about the influencer
Personal Appeals an influence tactic in which the requestor asks for something based on personal friendship or loyalty
Exchange Tactic an influence tactic in which the requestor offers a reward in return for performing a request
Apprising an influence tactic in which the requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the target personally
Pressure an influence tactic in which the requestor attempts to use coercive power through threats and demands
Coalition an influence tactic in which the influencer enlists other people to help influence the target
Responses to Influence Attempts internalization, compliance, resistance
Organizational Politics individual actions directed toward the goal of furthering a person's self-interest
Political Skill the ability to understand others and the use of that knowledge to influence them to further personal or organizational objectives
5 Styles of Conflict Resolution competing, avoiding, accommodating, collaboration, compromise
Leadership the use of power and influence to direct the activities of followers toward goal achievement
Leadership Styles autocratic, consultative, facilitative, delegative
Time Driven Model of Leadership a model that suggests that seven factors, including the importance of decision, the expertise of the leader, and the competence of the followers, combine to make some decision-making styles more effective than others in a given situation
Initiating Structure a pattern of behavior where the leader defines and structures the roles of employees in pursuit of goal attainment
Consideration a pattern behavior where the leader creates job relationships characterized by mutual trust, respect for employee ideas, and consideration of employee feelings
Life Cycle Theory of Leadership a theory stating that the optimal combination of initiating structure and consideration depends on the readiness of the employees in the work unit
Readiness the degree to which employees have the ability and the willingness to accomplish their specific tasks
Four styles Telling, Selling, Participating, Delegating
Transformational Leadership a pattern of behavior in which the leader inspires followers to commit to a shared vision that provides meaning to their work while also serving as a role model who helps followers develop their own potential and view problems from new perspectives
Laissez-faire Leadership when the leader avoids leadership duties altogether
Transactional Leadership a pattern of behavior in which the leader rewards or disciplines the follower on the basis of performance
Organizational Structure formally dictates how jobs and tasks are divided and coordinated between individuals and groups within the company
Organizational Chart a drawing that represents every job in the organization and the formal reporting relationships between those jobs
Elements of Organizational Structure work specialization, chain of command, span of control, centralization, formalization,
Organizational Design the process of creating, selecting, or changing the structure of an organization
Simple Structure an organizational form that features one person as the central decision-making figure
Bureaucratic Structure an organizational form that exhibits many of the facets of a mechanistic organization
Functional Structure an organizational form in which employees are grouped by the functions they perform for the organization
Multidivisional Structure an organizational form in which employees are grouped by product, geography or client
Matrix Structure a complex form of organizational structure that combines a functional and multidivisional grouping
Organizational Culture the shared social knowledge within an organization regarding teh rules, norms and values that shape the attitudes and behaviors of its employees
Culture Strength the degree to which employees agree about how things should happen within the organization and behave accordingly
Subculture a culture created within a small subset of the organization's employees
Counterculture a subculture whose values do not match those of the organization
Attraction-Selection-Attrition (ASA) Framework a theory that states that employees will be drawn to organizations with cultures that match their personality, organizations will select employees that match, and employees will leave or be forced out when they are not a good fit
Socialization the primary process by which employees learn the social knowledge that enables them to understand and adapt to the organization's culture
Stages of Socialization anticipatory, encounter, understanding and adaptation
The Change Process unfreezing, change initiative, refreezing
Created by: 100002474561254
 

 



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